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A conclusion
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

emotions publicly, which is not usually socially acceptable elsewhere. As clubs, leagues and media companies continue to expand their markets, it is unlikely that there will be a reduction in the number of matches being played. This will mean that there will continue to be numerous opportunities for ultras to meet, perform and create their spectacles. There will be continuing passion and performance in stadiums across the world, all of which will intensify and magnify the image of the ultras. It is for this reason that the ultras are not going away. Since their inception

in Ultras
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Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

subsume your individual identity into a wider collective. A piece of graffiti painted by ultras of Wydad Casablanca sums this up perfectly when they portrayed a hooded ultra with their face obscured alongside the slogan ‘No Face. No Name. Just Passion.’ When certain social commentators (Giddens, 1990; 1991; 1992; Beck, 1992; Putnam et al., 1993; Putnam, 2000) suggest that social life is becoming DOIDGE__9780719027624_Print.indd 2 08/01/2020 10:19 Introduction 3 more individualistic, the ultras clearly demonstrate collective action on a weekly basis. They are

in Ultras
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Centralising emotions in football fandom
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

seen as the apotheosis of humanity and differentiates humans from other animals. In contrast, emotion has been viewed negatively and radically distinct from reason (Lutz, 1986; Damasio, 1994; Barbalet, 1998; Shilling, 2002). Western thinkers have negated the role of the body (Shilling, 1991; Solomon, 1993), yet the body can retain historical memories of emotional trauma (van der Kolk, 2014). In Europe there was a transition in the early nineteenth century to a secular vernacular describing ‘emotions’, rather than the more religious ‘passions’ (Solomon, 1993; Dixon

in Ultras
Corpse, bodypolitics and contestation in contemporary Guatemala
Ninna Nyberg Sørensen

. Quantifying the corpses: homicide and feminicide rates in Guatemala Although political violence in Guatemala has decreased with the peace accords, human rights defenders, union leaders, environmentalists, corruption fighters, judges and indigenous community leaders continue to carry out their work under threats and at risk of getting killed. It is not uncommon that police investigations conclude that the killing of a trade union leader turned out to be a crime of passion, committed by an ex-partner or la otra mujer, hereby resisting the idea that the violence represents a

in Governing the dead
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

an illuminating guard of honour (Church, 2019). The spectacular sight of the long street lit up with the orange glow and smoke of the pyrotechnics demonstrated the passion of the fans and the importance of the match. Ultras are no longer just competing with their rivals in the stadium, but now have a variety of global platforms to compare themselves to others. This competition is bolstered with online channels like Ultras World or Ultras-Tifo ranking performances globally. Like music in the Billboard charts, groups are ranked in order of the best choreographies of

in Ultras
The revival of Lucanian wheat festivals
Lorenzo Ferrarini

anthropological point of view, and of theatre pieces that imaginatively connect wheat rituals and pre-Christian cults, can be read in this way. Another example is the visual quotations from the film La passione del grano ( The Passion of the Wheat ), shot in San Giorgio by Lino Del Fra and with voiceover by De Martino (Del Fra 1960 ), in the music video for the song La bestia nel grano ( The Beast in the Wheat ) by folk-rock artist Vinicio Capossela. 4.6 San Giorgio Lucano, 2017. Children in the procession on St Roch’s day. 4.7 San Giorgio Lucano

in Sonic ethnography
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

hooligans or casuals (Roversi and Balestri, 2000). The choreographies are a vivid, colourful expression of the passion of the ultras in the stands. They range from flags, banners, scarves or coordinated clothing, to vast works of art painted onto colossal pieces of cloth that are stitched together to cover the stand. These images will draw on local history, significant moments from the club’s past, or make barbed political statements. Alongside this visual spectacle, fans will also engage in singing, chanting and clapping. The combination of this aural and visual

in Ultras
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Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

a). Clubs enjoyed the atmosphere created by the ultras, which affected the players of the home team, referees and the opposing team. The ultras also gave their support to club presidents during elections to the board and this helped guarantee a lot of privileges (Doidge, 2015a). For example, Nuhrat (2018b: 873) highlights how club officials at Beşiktaş welcome the passionate support from Çarşı, but that this comes at a price: ‘Wishing to be in total control of football as a spectacle, administrators praise or rather tolerate fervour and passion so long as they

in Ultras
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My exhausted and exhausting building
Mona Abaza

failure for whom, and for which classes? On the contrary, if today’s uses of the Zoo garden are so remote from its original inception, they still do not reject what the anthropologist Vincent Battesti – who has closely observed the practices of the visitors – called ‘the popular passion for the zoo’ (Battesti 2006: 491), a lively passion of ‘excited crowds’ that, during feast days and holidays, such as the feast days after Ramadan, can reach up to 500,000 visitors a day (Battesti 2006: 492). The same logic could be applied to the informal practices of occupying the

in Cairo collages
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

making choreographies. In Morocco the first ultras groups formed in 2005 with the Green Boys at Raja Casablanca, Winners at Wydad Casablanca and Ultras Askary at FAR Rabat. Despite attempts to crack down on the ultras, the passion and intensity of the emotions in Moroccan stadiums is supplemented with spectacular choreographies, as well as the use of smoke bombs and pyrotechnics. A significant development has occurred in neighbouring Algeria, where choreographies by ultras have influenced political protests away from the stadium as protestors created large tifos on

in Ultras