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The French human sciences and the crafting of modern subjectivity, 1794–1816
Laurens Schlicht

populace in order to clear the way for new and better ones: Revolutions are, for the political body they shake, what medicines are for the impaired human body whose harmony they must restore. In both cases, the first effect is a disorder, the first sensation pain. 1 Petit thereby claimed that the ‘shock of all passions’ which had

in Progress and pathology
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Convalescent care in early modern England
Hannah Newton

intimately connected to the ‘six Non-Natural things’: excretion, sleep, food, passions, air and exercise. Patients’ sleeping patterns, appetites for foods, and emotions, along with other inclinations and behaviours that related to the Non-Naturals, were used to track their progression on ‘the road to health’. Medical practitioners and the patient’s family sought to regulate each Non-Natural in order to promote the body’s restoration, and Convalescent care in early modern England 105 guard against possible relapse. I argue that this regulation, together with the

in Conserving health in early modern culture
Open Access (free)
The hygienic utopia in Jules Verne, Camille Flammarion, and William Morris
Manon Mathias

brief glimpses. Nadia Minerva suggests that this might be because ‘perfection cannot be represented without falling into the stereotypes of a well-worn genre’. 58 But the refusal to offer direct descriptions of France-Ville might also be due to its problematic nature. Whereas the novel appears to offer a model city, the absence of dirt and disease entails the absence of passion, excitement, and independence of thought. The regularity of the inhabitants’ lifestyle or ‘scientific regime’ is repressive

in Progress and pathology
Intercession and integration in the medieval English leper hospital
Carole Rawcliffe

communities of diseased individuals assembled regularly for prayer, in part for their own benefit, but largely on behalf of past, present and future patrons. Much has already been written about the attractions of leprosi – or at least of those leprosi who comported themselves in a suitably pious and penitential fashion – as agents of redemption. They were, above all, regarded as living representatives of the tormented Christ, whose appearance quasi leprosus at the time of his Passion became an enduring theme in medieval art and literature. 10 Assumptions about their

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Caring for newborns in early modern England
Leah Astbury

of care, or to properly integrate practices aimed at promoting longevity into extant histories of the way bodies were experienced.2 The ebb and flow of humours were central to the way early modern people understood the body and the way it functioned.3 Health was dependent on the air one breathed, how one slept, the movements the body made, what one ate and drank, the regularity of excretion and the Caring for newborns in early modern England 81 passions of the soul. Within this framework each person had their own particular complexion, which meant that

in Conserving health in early modern culture
Psychological wounds and curative methods in the English Civil Wars
Erin Peters

relieved by exonerating themselves to a faithfull friend, he sees that which we cannot see for passion and discontent, he pacifies our mindes.14 Burton’s remedy for the ‘disease’ of the ‘distressed mind’ is thus essentially what became known as the Freudian ‘talking cure’ almost three centuries later: seeking to reinstate the rule of reason and break through repressive habits, it is the repeated narration of the sufferer’s grief and mental turmoil that will ultimately bring relief from the affliction. This relief comes from attempting to give meaning to experiences that

in Battle-scarred
Rebecca Anne Barr

greatly nervous, and indued with an exquisite Sense; whence many … are troubled with a bad Digestion, Costiveness, and the hypochondriac Passion’.9 In holistic models of the body, the viscera were analogous to the brain and were as complex, as sensitive and as much subject to disturbance as grey matter. As modern urban lifestyles subjected men and women to new conditions, nervous anxiety often registered as somatic disorders, many of which – mysterious loss of appetite, listlessness and wasting of the body – manifested themselves in the stomach. Psychosomatic malaises

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century