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Ted Aubertin

flying or signs that were up which said ‘FTQ’, which stood for something to the Queen, and the other one said ‘FTP’, and that stood for something else to the Pope. So you knew by looking at the wall which area you were in. In those days you didn’t have the demarcations which later came about, where they DAWSON 9780719096310 PRINT (v2).indd 36 14/10/2016 12:19 ‘I got shot through the head’ 37 had republican areas, unionist areas and it was all marked off much more clearly. You had the ‘peace wall’ and all that sort of business going up, but that was in the early

in The Northern Ireland Troubles in Britain
Bethany Waterhouse-Bradley

official end and established a forced power-sharing Executive. However, the region remains plagued by ethnic division and the socio-economic scars of the conflict. Housing, schools and many social and cultural activities remain segregated. More than 108 ‘peace walls’ create physical divisions between majority Protestant and Catholic neighbourhoods, most of which were erected after the ceasefire. A period of relative political and social stability, coupled with the expansion of the European Union in 2004–2007 (A8 and A2 accession), have led to a

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Sandra Buchanan

scale. Since 2012 under its ‘Strategic Framework for Action 2012–2015’, the Fund has concentrated its efforts on its Community Transformation Strategy, focusing primarily on its Peace Walls Programme, Peace Impact Programme, and to a lesser extent Completion and Sustainability17 and now Consolidation through its 2016–20 strategy.18 EU Peace Programmes outlined Background, funding, and activities Following the 1994 paramilitary ceasefires, the European Commission, in seeking to provide practical assistance to the region’s fledgling peace process, 186 THEORIES OF IR

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
The search for a place vision after the ‘troubles’
William J. V. Neill and Geraint Ellis

-spatial expression of ethnic identity. Abstract regulations and statistical classifications of space in the 1960s planning documents were to quickly pale before the brute reality of the hastily prepared Orange and Green maps of sectarian space familiar at every ‘security force’ base in the region. The hard edge of ethnic spatial management was evident in the all too visible presence of CC-TV surveillance, watch towers, listening antennae, fortified police stations and ‘peacewalls. The suspicion that in the military management of ethnic conflict urban planning decisions involving

in Northern Ireland after the troubles
Di Parkin

had been on the Shankill Road with material identifying DAWSON 9780719096310 PRINT (v2).indd 172 14/10/2016 12:19 Political delegations of women from Britain 173 ourselves as r­ epublican sympathisers, we would have been in danger of attack. I remember that we walked along the pedestrian route through the immense – and to us scary – ‘peace wall’ separating the Falls and Shankill areas, where the vehicle road had been blocked off by barriers, so that you could not see, shoot or drive straight down it. When we walked back through the peace line, we were stopped

in The Northern Ireland Troubles in Britain
Abstract only
Robin Wilson

, amid the proliferation of ‘peace walls’ on the ground (Community Relations Council, 2008). More than forty years on from the fateful civil-rights march in Derry which forced Northern Ireland on to the agenda of the British State, the old communal inequalities have been eroded to near vanishing point, as a result of the outworking of the reforms won by the civil-rights movement

in The Northern Ireland experience of conflict and agreement
Feargal Cochrane

terms of politically motivated violence, the reality is more complex than the headlines would suggest. While fatalities have been vastly reduced and the infrastructure of the paramilitary organisations and British military presence are greatly diminished, levels of structural segregation, ethnonational sectarianism and community friction remain high in Northern Ireland. 5 There are more rather than fewer ‘peace walls’ in Belfast erected to keep people apart, while over 90% of children continue to be educated in

in Breaking peace
Advantages and disadvantages
Michael Cunningham

own country’s wrongdoing.’ (The Peninsula, ‘Apologies in Northeast Asia – A Discussion with Dr. Jennifer Lind’,, p. 2, accessed 30 October 2012). 31 K. Rudd ‘Fourth Anniversary of the National Apology to Indigenous Australians’,, p. 4, accessed 12 October 2012. 32 The persistence of ‘peace walls’ and the continuance of ‘low-level’ sectarian rioting and violence indicates the degree of recognition is limited. 33 The

in States of apology
Abstract only
Bernadette C. Hayes and Ian McAllister

either banning or placing restrictions on any parades deemed contentious or offensive. The Orange Order has a policy of nonengagement with the Commission (see McAuley et al. , 2011 ). 17 In some interface areas, the level of intercommunal violence has resulted in many existing ‘peace walls’ being

in Conflict to peace
A constructivist realist critique of idealism and conservative realism
Paul Dixon

’ blocs. The idealist civil society approach to explaining the Northern Ireland peace process can be criticised for its wishful thinking, mistaking the world as it ought to be for the world as it is. Civil society, depending on how it is defined, may be a force for communal polarisation rather than communal cohesion,20 and focusing on the need and desire for cooperation across the divide may underestimate the real conflict that exists. In fact, the growth of peace walls and continuing communalism highlight the difficulty of achieving a more integrated Northern Ireland

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland