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Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

Introduction Recent interventions in visual theory claim the camera affords the disenfranchised a form of political participation through the civil space opened up by the medium, a space where creator, subject, and spectator intersect ( Azoulay, 2008 ; de Laat, 2019 ). Beyond merely being a technology for producing pictures, the camera is understood as mediating social relations, and as such is an inherently political medium. Crucial to this formulation is visibility: being seen enables participation in a political community, even if only through a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

An international research initiative run by the Development Learning Programme based at the University of Birmingham. See: . 9 By the same token, elites must have super-brains. 10 Since the mid 2000s, there has been a growing number of computer games and software programmes that claim to allow interested parties to experience what it is like to be a refugee or subject to a disaster. The Darfur content on Google Layers, for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The promotion of human rights in international politics

This book argues for greater openness in the ways we approach human rights and international rights promotion, and in so doing brings some new understanding to old debates. Starting with the realities of abuse rather than the liberal architecture of rights, it casts human rights as a language for probing the political dimensions of suffering. Seen in this context, the predominant Western models of right generate a substantial but also problematic and not always emancipatory array of practices. These models are far from answering the questions about the nature of political community that are raised by the systemic infliction of suffering. Rather than a simple message from ‘us’ to ‘them’, then, rights promotion is a long and difficult conversation about the relationship between political organisations and suffering. Three case studies are explored: the Tiananmen Square massacre, East Timor's violent modern history and the circumstances of indigenous Australians. The purpose of these discussions is not to elaborate on a new theory of rights, but to work towards rights practices that are more responsive to the spectrum of injury that we inflict and endure.

Cerwyn Moore

further, some literature also echoes the facets of violence identified by theorists of ‘new wars’; the ‘paramilitaries, warlords, militias and transnational organisations’ which condition contemporary violence. 98 Stories of war in the Balkans and Caucasus In this sense, literary insight can be political, but literature also provides social, cultural and historical functions which are especially important when analyses turn to the interpretation of the encounter between different political communities. Thus, we see in much of historical literature – for instance in

in Contemporary violence
Abstract only
Elizabeth Dauphinée

keepers of the canon – the priests and the scholars – set an example (ideally) for others to follow: self-denial with the greater goal of the institution and maintenance of a like-minded or same-oriented community, which is in turn canonized and cryogenized into cold systems – into cooling systems. The power to discipline is supplemented crucially by the power to excommunicate – by the power to excise an offending member from the spiritual and political community. As William Connelly notes: There are, indeed, parallels between sixteenth-century Christian definitions of

in The ethics of researching war
Britain, 1940–43
Andrew Williams

after Versailles, could be expected to break it when strong enough to do so, to right their own perceived wrongs. Using Hobbes as his basis, Carr said that law outside a clearly defined political community was a nonsense: ‘Law, like politics, is a meeting place for ethics and power.’65 The place for its exercise had to remain within the boundaries of the nation state. While not fully agreeing with Carr’s ‘realism’, the memos circulating in Chatham House during that Summer of 1939, especially those relating to the ‘Survey of European Problems’, and others cited below

in Failed imagination?
Nora Siklodi

about what European identity signifies are distorted further by the European Commission’s (hereafter the Commission) ever-changing discourse on this issue. Using discursive evidence (following the guidelines provided by Fairclough, 2013),1 this chapter reveals that while the Commission (1973) has recognised the legitimising role European identity has for the EU as an emerging political community, it has failed to adopt a consistent approach to this issue. Instead, the Commission tends to propose significantly different processes – shifting between top-down and bottom

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Evgeny Roshchin

discussions of life in the political community. In this context we can find many observations on what constitutes friendship among individuals, what is good and what is detrimental to friendship, what conditions feeble and lasting friendships, the circumstances in which they are formed and who can become friends. Since such discussions of friendship occasionally took the form of narratives on friendship between different cities and peoples, it is all the more important to start by reconstructing the main themes in the ethics of friendship. Given the scope of ancient

in Friendship among nations
Dominant approaches
M. Anne Brown

notions of human rights draw indirectly or directly on some of our most deeply embedded presumptions and reference-points – for those of us in liberal democracies, particularly those cosmologies concerning the nature of the person and of political community. Questions about and concepts of the human as individual, of what is right, the state, justice, freedom, equality, and so on, flicker like a constellation of stars just off the edge of our fields of analysis – fading in and out, holding much, promising or claimed as anchorage, yet elusive and obscure. For many, the

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Politics and law
Evgeny Roshchin

place in early modern political and legal thought. As I shall demonstrate, the concept of political friendship was rearticulated in theories of the internal arrangement of and relations between political communities. This casts a new light on the political and social order at the dawn of the sovereign state and modern international regimes. The ‘Aristotelian’ idea of friendship ‘in a political sense’, or friendship as a basic agreement about the nature of a polity and co-existence, is an easily identifiable trope in Humanist discourses on the constitution of polities

in Friendship among nations