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Author: John Walter

Early modern England was marked by profound changes in economy, society, politics and religion. It is widely believed that the poverty and discontent which these changes often caused resulted in major rebellion and frequent 'riots'. This book argues for the inherently political nature of popular protest through a series of studies of acts of collective protest, up to and including the English Revolution. Authority was always the first historian of popular protest. Explaining the complex relationship between the poor and their governors, the book overviews popular attitudes to the law and the proper exercise of authority in early modern England. A detailed reconstruction of events centring on grain riots in the Essex port of Maldon in the crisis of 1629 is then presented. Urbanisation, regional specialisation and market integration were the larger changes against which disorder was directed between 1585 and 1649. The book discusses the 'four Ps', population growth, price rise, poverty and protest, explaining their connection with population explosion to poverty and protest. The major European revolts of the so-called 'Oxfordshire rising' are then analysed. Popular politics might deploy 'weapons of the weak' in a form of everyday politics that was less dramatic but more continuous than 'riot'. On the very eve of the Civil War, large crowds, with underemployed clothworkers, attacked and plundered the houses of local Catholics and proto-royalists among the nobility and gentry. In a culture that proscribed protest and prescribed obedience, public transcripts could be used to legitimise a popular political agency.

The Powers of Were-Goats in Tommaso Landolfi‘s La pietra lunare (The Moonstone)
Keala Jewell

Jewell links the were-animals in Tommaso Landolfis novel La pietra lunare to population ecology in the 1930s. Landolfi imagines and narrates a were-population explosion in the specific historical context of the changes fascism brought to rural life when it favored a grain-based economy. When state policy attempts to manage grazing populations and the culture of transhumance, the uncontrolled growth of fast-breeding, broad-ranging, mountain-going were-goats in the novel puts the validity of fascist agricultural policy into question. When in secret at the full moon they couple monstrously and multiply, were-animals thoroughly challenge the effectiveness of discourses of controlled population management.

Gothic Studies
David Larsson Heidenblad

nuclear war and radioactivity to overpopulation and environmental destruction. Many cultural connections were made between these threats, not least the growing concern about ‘the population explosion’. For example, Georg Borgström illustrated the demographic trend with a diagram in the form of a mushroom cloud, and Paul Ehrlich’s international bestseller was entitled The Population Bomb (1968). In the dawning environmental debate of the 1960s, radioactivity and its link to cancer played a similar role. This invisible threat

in The environmental turn in postwar Sweden
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Caroline Rusterholz

cultural script of human rights became predominant, and it was found at the international conference in Vienna in 1968, organised by the International Women's Federation and entitled The Hungry Millions, a clear sign that family planning was again being seen through the lens of the ‘population bomb’. Contemporary fears of population explosion and food shortages permeated all dimensions of the proceedings of this conference. Female medical doctors presented family planning as ‘a basic human right’ and underlined the need for medical responsibility in ‘participating in a

in Women’s medicine
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Lester K. Little

textile industry, and soon ended up awash in money by becoming its principal supplier; their Italian counterparts were in the forefront of building the extensive irrigation system in parts of Lombardy and Piedmont mentioned earlier, a project that greatly expanded agricultural production at the very moment of a population explosion. The Cistercians continued to exist in the thirteenth century and beyond, just as the older Benedictine monasteries did, but their capacity for intellectual and spiritual innovation and relevance had rapidly dissipated

in Indispensable immigrants
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Ginger S. Frost

without breadwinners, one reason the communities regulated the sexuality of the young carefully.12 The late eighteenth century contrasted sharply with this stability. By the 1780s, the population was rising inexorably, and illegitimacy rates increased disproportionately within that, to as much as 10 per cent of live births (and in some parts of Scotland, higher). The reasons for the increase were many, mostly related to the changes associated with early industrialisation, urbanisation, and the proletarianisation of agriculture. The resulting population explosion

in Illegitimacy in English law and society,1860–1930
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Iseult Honohan and Nathalie Rougier

population explosion in all but name’, Irish Times, 30 March. King, P. (1976) Toleration. London: Allen and Unwin. Kymlicka, W. (1995) Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Meer, N. and Modood, T. (2012) ‘How does interculturalism contrast with multiculturalism?’ Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(2): 175–5–96. National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism (2006) SPECTRUM, The Journal of the National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism, Issue 12. RTE (2013) ‘Attitudes to

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
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Reconstructing popular political culture in early modern England
John Walter

protest. This produced a local variant of Rostow’s ‘social tension’ chart famously excoriated by E. P. Thompson. What we might label, tongue in cheek, as the graph of the ‘four Ps’ – population growth, price rise, poverty and protest – reflected an implicit belief that the level and trajectory of protest might be read directly off the causal chain that ran from population explosion to poverty and on to protest. Of course, nowhere within the literature on early modern England has anything so crude as this graph been produced. But the subliminal power of this ‘model’ helps

in Crowds and popular politics in early modern England