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Author: John Walter

Early modern England was marked by profound changes in economy, society, politics and religion. It is widely believed that the poverty and discontent which these changes often caused resulted in major rebellion and frequent 'riots'. This book argues for the inherently political nature of popular protest through a series of studies of acts of collective protest, up to and including the English Revolution. Authority was always the first historian of popular protest. Explaining the complex relationship between the poor and their governors, the book overviews popular attitudes to the law and the proper exercise of authority in early modern England. A detailed reconstruction of events centring on grain riots in the Essex port of Maldon in the crisis of 1629 is then presented. Urbanisation, regional specialisation and market integration were the larger changes against which disorder was directed between 1585 and 1649. The book discusses the 'four Ps', population growth, price rise, poverty and protest, explaining their connection with population explosion to poverty and protest. The major European revolts of the so-called 'Oxfordshire rising' are then analysed. Popular politics might deploy 'weapons of the weak' in a form of everyday politics that was less dramatic but more continuous than 'riot'. On the very eve of the Civil War, large crowds, with underemployed clothworkers, attacked and plundered the houses of local Catholics and proto-royalists among the nobility and gentry. In a culture that proscribed protest and prescribed obedience, public transcripts could be used to legitimise a popular political agency.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

David Larsson Heidenblad

nuclear war and radioactivity to overpopulation and environmental destruction. Many cultural connections were made between these threats, not least the growing concern about ‘the population explosion’. For example, Georg Borgström illustrated the demographic trend with a diagram in the form of a mushroom cloud, and Paul Ehrlich’s international bestseller was entitled The Population Bomb (1968). In the dawning environmental debate of the 1960s, radioactivity and its link to cancer played a similar role. This invisible threat

in The environmental turn in postwar Sweden
Caroline Rusterholz

cultural script of human rights became predominant, and it was found at the international conference in Vienna in 1968, organised by the International Women's Federation and entitled The Hungry Millions, a clear sign that family planning was again being seen through the lens of the ‘population bomb’. Contemporary fears of population explosion and food shortages permeated all dimensions of the proceedings of this conference. Female medical doctors presented family planning as ‘a basic human right’ and underlined the need for medical responsibility in ‘participating in a

in Women’s medicine
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Lester K. Little

textile industry, and soon ended up awash in money by becoming its principal supplier; their Italian counterparts were in the forefront of building the extensive irrigation system in parts of Lombardy and Piedmont mentioned earlier, a project that greatly expanded agricultural production at the very moment of a population explosion. The Cistercians continued to exist in the thirteenth century and beyond, just as the older Benedictine monasteries did, but their capacity for intellectual and spiritual innovation and relevance had rapidly dissipated

in Indispensable immigrants
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Ginger S. Frost

without breadwinners, one reason the communities regulated the sexuality of the young carefully.12 The late eighteenth century contrasted sharply with this stability. By the 1780s, the population was rising inexorably, and illegitimacy rates increased disproportionately within that, to as much as 10 per cent of live births (and in some parts of Scotland, higher). The reasons for the increase were many, mostly related to the changes associated with early industrialisation, urbanisation, and the proletarianisation of agriculture. The resulting population explosion

in Illegitimacy in English law and society,1860–1930
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Reconstructing popular political culture in early modern England
John Walter

protest. This produced a local variant of Rostow’s ‘social tension’ chart famously excoriated by E. P. Thompson. What we might label, tongue in cheek, as the graph of the ‘four Ps’ – population growth, price rise, poverty and protest – reflected an implicit belief that the level and trajectory of protest might be read directly off the causal chain that ran from population explosion to poverty and on to protest. Of course, nowhere within the literature on early modern England has anything so crude as this graph been produced. But the subliminal power of this ‘model’ helps

in Crowds and popular politics in early modern England
Mark Hampton

Kong was, as Robert Bickers terms it, a ‘backwater’, much less significant to British concerns than Shanghai. 4 Its inter-war population peaked at well under two million; and while this declined to about 600,000 at the end of the war, it had reached two million by 1951 and was nearing four million by 1971. This population explosion was stimulated firstly by the Chinese Civil War (1945–49) and then the subsequent victory by the Communist Party, which created a refugee crisis in the early 1950s. Yet it also resulted from a healthy birth rate; in both 1961 and 1971

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Thomas Linehan

-east was particularly marked. The growth of London’s suburban ‘outer ring’ between 1921 and 1931, for example, saw population explosions in numerous districts hitherto partially rural, such as Carshalton by 105.2 per cent, Chingford by 132.6 per cent and Kingsbury by 796.3 per cent, the latter from 1,856 to 16,636. 55 This expansion partly reflected a desire on the part of the middle classes to flee the older parts of town and partly mirrored internal population movements from north to south. To the BUF the suburban phenomenon was wholly objectionable. Neither

in British Fascism 1918-39
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Eric Richards

-step towards the catastrophe of the 1840s and mass emigration. They dominate the story of Ireland, each part explaining the other. The first disentanglement of the issues must recognise that emigration pre-dated and post-dated the Great Famine and that the prior population explosion engulfed every aspect of the Irish predicament. Population in perspective Scarcity and congestion were not necessarily the usual condition of Ireland. In the seventeenth century, land in Ireland was abundant and tenancies easy to obtain. Even in the early eighteenth century ‘there was a general

in The genesis of international mass migration