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Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

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Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

continent’s population; over 70 percent in the post-World War II period. Once at the very center of African identity discussions, issues of racial identity have now been largely subsumed by other factors with some notable exceptions—the Sudan–South Sudan divide for instance. The demise of the role of race as a primary differentiating factor in shaping African identity has been driven by two major trends: 1) The enormous population explosion in sub-Saharan Africa; 2) The end of colonialism, including the demise of apartheid South Africa. In 1970 the population of Africa

in African security in the twenty-first century