This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
continent’s population; over 70 percent in the post-World War II period.
Once at the very center of African identity discussions, issues of racial
identity have now been largely subsumed by other factors with some
notable exceptions—the Sudan–South Sudan divide for instance. The
demise of the role of race as a primary differentiating factor in shaping
African identity has been driven by two major trends: 1) The enormous
populationexplosion in sub-Saharan Africa; 2) The end of colonialism,
including the demise of apartheid South Africa.
In 1970 the population of Africa
From import-substitution industrialization to economic liberalization
the union budget]?’ (Bagchi, 2005).
One of the main characteristics of India as a developing economy is the rate of
growth of the population. The total population of India crossed the 1 billion
mark in March 2000.2 India has high birth rates and declining death rates, thanks
to modern science and improved health facilities.Although birth rates have fallen
from 36.9 per thousand in 1971 to 29.5 per thousand in 1991 and 25.8 per
thousand in 2002, death rates have fallen even more steeply, from 14.9 per
thousand in 1971 to 9.8 per thousand in