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The unmarked marker in racialised hierarchical social systems
Ebun Joseph

1 Race: the unmarked marker in racialised hierarchical social systems Race is constructed for the purpose of maintaining a racial hierarchy. Race does not exist as a neutral attribute of each individual. Race exists as a signifier of group and individual social status. Race is real in its social consequences. If race existed only on its condition of being believed, its life would have ceased long ago. (Zuberi and Bonilla-Silva, 2008: 335–336) Race is a socil construct that has been utilised in separating people into groups for positive or negative treatment

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Open Access (free)
Languages of racism and resistance in Neapolitan street markets

Race Talk is about racism and multilingual communication. The book draws on original, ethnographic research conducted on heterogeneous and multiethnic street markets in Napoli, southern Italy, in 2012. Here, Neapolitan street vendors worked alongside migrants from Senegal, Nigeria, Bangladesh and China as part of an ambivalent, cooperative and unequal quest to survive and prosper. A heteroglossia of different kinds of talk revealed the relations of domination and subordination between people. It showed how racialised hierarchies were enforced, as well as how ambivalent and novel transcultural solidarities emerged in everyday interaction. Street markets in Napoli provided important economic possibilities for both those born in the city, and those who had arrived more recently. However, anti-immigration politics, austerity and urban regeneration projects increasingly limited people’s ability to make a living in this way. In response, the street vendors organised politically. Their collective action was underpinned by an antihegemonic, multilingual talk through which they spoke back to power. Since that time, racism has surged in Napoli, and across the world, whilst human movement has continued unabated, because of worsening political, economic and environmental conditions. The book suggests that the edginess of multilingual talk – amongst people diversified in terms of race, legal status, religion and language, but united by an understanding of their potential disposability – offers useful insights into the kinds of imaginaries that will be needed to overcome the politics of borders and nationalism.

David Lloyd’s work
Laura Chrisman

chapter7 21/12/04 11:19 am Page 127 7 Theorising race, racism and culture: David Lloyd’s work My focus here is an important and influential article by postcolonial scholar David Lloyd, ‘Race Under Representation’, published in the 1991 ‘Neo-Colonialism’ issue of Oxford Literary Review.1 Lloyd sets out to explain ‘how the meshing of racial formations can take place between various levels and spheres of social practice, as, for example, between political and cultural spheres or between the individual and the national level’ (p. 63). A central argument of his

in Postcolonial contraventions
Islam and the contestation of citizenship
Shailja Sharma

3 Race by any other name: Islam and the contestation of citizenship And now what will become of us without Barbarians? Those people were some sort of a solution. (Cavafy, 1967) In an increasingly politically and economically unified and internationalist Europe, how does a new European culture define itself? The process of selfdefinition, creating zones of exclusion within Europe, may be one way, especially if those zones are located within ethnicities and religions. Islam has historically occupied the liminal zones of a “secular” but historically Christian

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
Chris Gilligan

3 Racisms and the Race Relations approach In August 2005 Frank Kakopa, his wife and his two children, aged 6 and 12, arrived at Belfast City Airport on a flight from Liverpool for a weekend holiday break. Kakopa and his family had previously lived in the Republic of Ireland, and now they lived near Liverpool. They wanted to visit Northern Ireland, a part of the UK they had not visited before. The family had booked a hire car and bed and breakfast accommodation in advance and were planning to visit the Giant’s Causeway, one of Ireland’s most famous tourist sites

in Northern Ireland and the crisis of anti-racism
Author: Ebun Joseph

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

Steve Garner

to grasp the breadth of the issues involved, we need an introduction to the key concepts that inform them: citizenship, ‘race’ and racialisation, and the state. After discussing those concepts, I suggest that the Citizenship Act (2005) racialised Irish nationality: i.e. it gave primary preference to bloodlines as its principal criterion for belonging, thus dividing Irish children into two categories with differential access to the rights and responsibilities accruing to citizens, Irish children and ‘Irish-born children’ (‘IBC’). 1 If the new citizenship rules were

in Defining events
Joy Y. Zhang and Saheli Datta Burton

examination of He's data concluded that the Cas9 enzyme he had worked on had cut the genome at the correct target site, but instead of producing a full 32-base-pair deletion, one of the twins had a 15-base-pair deletion, while the other had a four-base-pair deletion (Zimmer, 2018 ). In other words, He only achieved part of his desired mutations in the genes. As such, both the benefits and risks to the twin girls remain unknown. At the time of writing, this was the latest major scandal in the global race of taking advantage of CRISPR gene editing

in The elephant and the dragon in contemporary life sciences
Open Access (free)
Presumed black immunity to yellow fever and the racial politics of burial labour in 1855 Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia
Michael D. Thompson

Epidemic disease regularly tore through nineteenth-century American cities, triggering public health crises and economic upheaval. These epidemic panics also provoked new racialised labour regimes, affecting the lives of innumerable working people. During yellow fever outbreaks, white authorities and employers preferred workers of colour over ‘unacclimated’ white immigrants, reflecting a common but mistaken belief in black invulnerability. This article chronicles enslaved burial labourers in antebellum Virginia, who leveraged this notion to seize various privileges – and nearly freedom. These episodes demonstrate that black labour, though not always black suffering or lives, mattered immensely to white officials managing these urban crises. Black workers were not mere tools for protecting white wealth and health, however, as they often risked torment and death to capitalise on employers’ desperation for their essential labour. This history exposes racial and socioeconomic divergence between those able to shelter or flee from infection, and those compelled to remain exposed and exploitable.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family
Author: Joe Turner

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.