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A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

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Dolto in the twenty-first century
Richard Bates

effects of racial and colonial dominance on mental illness. ‘The issue of race hits you in the face here [ ce problème noir ici vous saute à la gorge ], whereas in France, [people think that] Martinique is just France’, Dolto commented. ‘The psychoanalytical point of view is completely absent … the sense of personal or internal family conflict isn’t among their categories.’ 4 Dolto felt intimidated. 5 Notwithstanding the influence of the Martinique-born Frantz Fanon on the radical psychiatry of the 1960s with which she

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Doltomania
Richard Bates

intended not only to help individuals, but to improve the overall psychological health of the French nation – or, as she revealingly referred to it, the French ‘ ethnie ’ (race or ethnic group). She assumed an overwhelmingly white and culturally Catholic audience. She did not foreground the voices of people on the margins of French society or particularly seek to appeal to immigrant communities; working-class and immigrant areas were underrepresented in her mailbag. Her thinking was shaped in an era and a milieu that took for

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in the public sphere, 1968–88
Richard Bates

race [ ethnie ], with its specific values, will be able to emerge from this without some profound upheavals.’ 81 A kind of national revolution was still required, with education at the forefront. Lorsque l’enfant paraît A further result of the post-1968 educational reforms was that renewed attention was paid to nursery and primary schooling. Jacques Chirac’s 1974 government appointed Annie Lesur, a doctor, to the newly created post of secretary of state for pre-school education. Some 84 per cent of French

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

race’ by understanding the ‘whole man’. 10 This example suggests an undercurrent of racial and colonial anxiety in the entire holistic tendency – a sense that France might not be able to maintain its empire if it did not make use of all available tools to maximise the physical and mental quality of its white population. Freudian psychoanalysis had some natural affinities with these holistic approaches, and indeed helped to inform them. Freud’s writings suggested that the whole of a person’s history and the entirety of their

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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The moron as an atavistic subhuman
Gerald V. O’Brien

as missing links or ‘monkey-­men’ compelled the public to question whether such entities could be considered fully human. One of the more famous of these ‘wild-­men’ had a ‘keeper’ and was exhibited in a cage for much of his career. While he actually hailed from New Jersey, he was said to have been found by a group of African explorers, who ‘came upon a group of this race that had never before been seen’. According to Robert Bogdan, this mysterious tribe was advertised as having been found ‘in a “perfectly nude state”’, and moved ‘through the trees and their

in Framing the moron
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Clement Masakure

generations of nurses took advantage of the opportunities presented by the presence of new healing spaces to improve themselves, and so did the later generations of nurses. The fact that the government opened nursing to African women due to structural changes in Rhodesia in the 1940s did not mean that African women were not able to imagine the possibilities offered by the nursing profession. I highlight that in an environment that limited women’s opportunities because of their gender and race, African women used nursing as a ladder to secure a better life for themselves and

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
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Packaging, brands and trademarks
Claire L. Jones

cocoa-butter soluble pessary and Lambert’s ‘Pro-Race’ cervical cap; these goods were frequently imitated and imitators were most commonly the growing number of disreputable ‘surgical’ or ‘rubber’ stores that sought to profit from existing demand. In focusing on the importance of intellectual property before ‘Durex’, this chapter draws attention to the tensions between the traditional and the modern in this period – Rendell’s ‘Wife’s Friend’, first manufactured in 1885, had long been established by the interwar period, while Lambert’s ‘Pro-Race’ cervical cap was

in The business of birth control
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

reliable and trusted measurements. In the following section, ‘Defining disease’, I begin by outlining the main arguments relevant to philosophical attempts to define disease – naturalism and normativism. I bring sustained attention to the reference class problem in the section titled ‘By no means average: the reference class problem’ and explore the ways in which ‘correcting’ for attributes like sex, class and race (or not) impacts on the measurement of normalcy. In relation to the scholarship on reference classes, I discuss whether disability could ever be considered

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
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Confronting the legacies of empire, disability and the Victorians
Esme Cleall

disabled people in contemporary Australia as being one of ‘apartheid’, not least due to the elements of social segregation, political isolation and economic marginalisation at stake. 3 A similar tactic has been to deploy the language of race – intimately bound up, as race is, with processes of colonialism and imperialism – to suggest the way in which disabled people have been, and continue to be, stigmatised. Leonard Kreigal most famously made this case when he discussed ‘the cripple as Negro’ in British and American

in Disability and the Victorians