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Vicky Randall

In moving from an analysis of Freeman’s views on the Teutonic origins of English freedom to the wider context of his Aryanism, we must proceed with caution. Not only are Victorian attitudes towards race notoriously difficult to interpret, but the word ‘Aryan’ has connotations in the twenty-first century which it did not have in the nineteenth. Analysing the only work to contain a systematic articulation of Freeman’s racial theory, the relatively obscure Comparative Politics (1873), I argue that his views were not idiosyncratic or extreme when judged by the

in History, empire, and Islam
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

as to assure – were that even desirable – the standardisation objectivity would require. The circumstances under which they take place are, like the personal relationships between the individuals involved, highly variable. Intersubjectivity  – the meeting of subjectivities in the interview space – has become increasingly important in oral history research, with researchers trying to understand how differences in class, race and ethnicity, gender and status affect the process of interviewing and shape the interview content.23 A  known instability is at the heart of

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Lindsey Dodd

further in 1943. As war fatigue set in, living conditions worsened and terror and persecution increased, air raids intensified, now with the USAAF bombing from a high altitude. During the Transportation Plan campaigns of 1944, it became harder still to support such destructive attacks. Suzanne Langlois wrote in her diary in April 1944 that the Americans were a ‘race of bloodthirsty brutes who treat their allies like the Germans treat their enemies’.75 The heavy raids were taking their toll on public support. Identifying the enemy should have been easy:  the German

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

against society, ‘race’ and state. Research on Vichy, family and community illustrates the importance attached to children as objects, but we are no closer to seeing them as subjects. Where does bombing fit into French children’s experiences of war? It clearly mattered, as Cécile Bramé from the naval port of Brest explained: I understood the progress of the war by the force of the bombs. You see, the first bombs, well, they scared us a bit, of course, and we saw houses destroyed, we’d go into our cellars. We thought it was safe because we had four storeys. And then when

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
E. A. Freeman and Victorian public morality
Author: Vicky Randall

This book seeks to reclaim E. A. Freeman (1823–92) as a leading Victorian historian and public moralist. Freeman was a prolific writer of history, Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford, and outspoken commentator on current affairs. His reputation declined sharply in the twentieth century, however, and the last full-scale biography was W. R. W. Stephens’ Life and Letters of Edward A. Freeman (1895). When Freeman is remembered today, it is for his six-volume History of the Norman Conquest (1867–79), celebrations of English progress, and extreme racial views.

Revisiting Freeman and drawing on previously unpublished materials, this study analyses his historical texts in relationship to the scholarly practices and intellectual preoccupations of their time. Most importantly, it draws out Thomas Arnold’s influence on Freeman’s understanding of history as a cyclical process in which the present collapsed into the past and vice versa. While Freeman repeatedly insisted on the superiority of the so-called ‘Aryans’, a deeper reading shows that he defined race in terms of culture rather than biology and articulated anxieties about decline and recapitulation. Contrasting Freeman’s volumes on Western and Eastern history, this book foregrounds religion as the central category in Freeman’s scheme of universal history. Ultimately, he conceived world-historical development as a battleground between Euro-Christendom and the Judeo-Islamic Orient and feared that the contemporary expansion of the British Empire and contact with the East would prove disastrous.

Abstract only
Vicky Randall

‘end of days’, that shaped Freeman’s redemptive view of past and present politics and accounts for the urgency with which he engaged with contemporary debates on the nature of history, issues of race and imperialism, and the Islamic ‘other’. An understanding of the importance of the Arnoldian framework in Freeman’s thought allowed, first, for a reassessment of his best-known work, the Norman Conquest . In Chapter 1 , I demonstrated that the connections Freeman made between race and politics served a specific historiographical function. The idea of a Teutonic race

in History, empire, and Islam
Abstract only
‘History is past politics, politics is present history’
Vicky Randall

life which has not been fully explored. The purpose of this book is to deepen our understanding of Freeman and his response to some of the pressing concerns of the later nineteenth century, including the nature of history, issues of race and imperialism, and confrontation with the Islamic East. In approaching Freeman, one of my aims is to situate his activities within the framework of ‘public moralism’ delineated by Stefan Collini. 2 Public moralists were (almost exclusively) men who enjoyed prominence in Britain between 1850 and 1930, and claimed a ‘right to be

in History, empire, and Islam
The critique of British expansionism
Vicky Randall

It is worth reiterating two aspects of Freeman’s racialised thinking before turning to consider his views on imperialism. First, Freeman presented English history as one chapter in a wider narrative of the progress of the Aryan race. The English were, for him, the foremost representatives of the Teutonic branch of an Aryan ‘family’ which also included the modern European descendants of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this sense, Freeman’s nationalism was muted: as Burrow writes, Freeman ‘wanted to be a Whig on a European scale’ and he celebrated the shared

in History, empire, and Islam
Vicky Randall

nineteenth century. This approach allows a fuller understanding of the materials and interpretations that were available to Freeman when composing his work. Assessing both the strengths and weaknesses of Freeman’s use of these sources, it will be seen that his scholarly ‘faults’ were the consequence of his determination to prove that the English constitution had developed continuously since the fifth century. While Freeman celebrated the English people, I show that his emphasis on race also enabled him to perform a complex act of historiographical synthesis. On the one

in History, empire, and Islam
The Memorandum of Understanding (1964–65)
Joseph Heller

and had prompted its request for military aid. Israel’s ambassador to Washington, Harman, said that Israel had to replace at least 300 of its tanks with more advanced models to keep its deterrent edge. Rusk repeated his previous claim that anti-tank weapons had rendered tanks irrelevant, as happened to the cavalry. The State Department was concerned that an escalating missile race in the Middle East

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67