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Heidi J. Holder

are ultimately suppressed and supplanted by English law. The exciting illogic of domestic melodrama is thus replaced by a ‘realistic’ lesson in the inevitable and virtuous effects of Empire. Alongside the presumed moral and political ‘realism’ of these plays there was another factor that further complicated the relation of genre to setting. Early colonial melodrama had strong

in Acts of supremacy
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Case studies of George Eliot and Harriet Martineau
Deborah M. Fratz

In literary studies George Eliot (1819–80) is often identified as the most ardent proponent of realism. Historical discussions of realism frequently invoke her letters, her novels and her review of two works by German ethnographer W. H. Riehl (1823–97). Today we read ‘The Natural History of German Life’ as a kind of manifesto for realist fiction. Eliot famously states that ‘the greatest benefit we owe to the artist, whether painter, poet, or novelist, is the extension of our sympathies’, but she problematises those sympathies when they are

in Disability and the Victorians
Real sympathy, the imitation of suffering and the visual arts after Burke’s sublime
Aris Sarafianos

. Among them, the approach to the Laocoon developed in Charles Bell’s Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting (1806) was central to the emergence of an organised new model of anatomical realism. In the vagaries of bodily pain and the plenitude of material details it revealed, Bell found a painful mode of spectatorship as well as a realist, new genre of anatomical criticism in full accord with Burke’s earlier guidelines. Bell’s sketches from Waterloo (1815) took this process even further, to an unprecedented imagery of extreme war surgery, ravaging injury, and

in The hurt(ful) body
John Carter Wood

for the social order and ‘Christian thinkers’ to ‘blend theological thought with sociological knowledge’. 51 Oldham agreed but complained to Temple that, unfortunately, ‘some of the theologians’ were the ‘most stupid’ about faith and society: their rarefied ‘theological atmosphere’ was remote from ‘the actual world’. 52 Nonetheless, five theological influences on the group stand out: (1) domestic traditions of ‘liberalism’; (2) the ‘Christian realism’ of Reinhold Niebuhr; (3) the neo-Thomist philosophy of Jacques Maritain; (4) ‘continental’ Protestant theology

in This is your hour
Lars Nowak

films also contributed to their belittlement of a nuclear bomb’s destructive power. Although Survival Under Atomic Attack and other films included shots of the real devastation that had been brought about by the A-bomb attacks on Japan, in many other cases the realism of the films’ photographic images was undermined by the fact that these images only showed staged damages, injuries and deaths. Furthermore, numerous civil defence films represented the dangers of nuclear explosions in drawings, which, although often animated, were even more removed from reality. Finally

in Understanding the imaginary war
Nico Randeraad

frequency. The European ambitions of some of the Italian delegates were a relic of early liberal nationalism but were out of touch with the realism that began to dictate international relations after 1860. Italy’s vision of Europe was very different from that of other countries. In its enthusiasm, Italy had reverted to an obsolete ideology, as if it could shore up its own legitimacy by making a bold appeal for a European future. Most of Europe’s governments had long considered that notion passé. Notes   1  U. Pesci, Firenze Capitale (1865–1870) (Florence 1904), p. 387

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
John J. Hurt

the hard realism that lay at the heart of absolute government. This is not to deny that in other areas, notably in their spheres of judicial and administrative competence, the royal administration treated the parlements favourably, even leniently. But this was because the king already occupied the political high ground, controlling the strategic terrain. Strong where it counted most, he could afford to relax pressure in areas where issues of supreme authority did not come into play. 195 Louis XIV and the parlements If this sterner view of Louis XIV’s absolutism

in Louis XIV and the parlements
Hero-worship, imperial masculinities and inter-generational ideologies in H. Rider Haggard’s 1880s fiction
Helen Goodman

realities of a young reader’s future career in the colonies do not seem to have produced much comment. Imagination and practicality are intermingled to give an illusion of realism through Haggard’s details about domestic innovations, such as hippopotamus fat lamps, appealing to creative boy-scout types.58 In spite of, or perhaps precisely because of, the limits of Haggard’s civilian role in colonial administration (to say nothing of his failed attempt at ostrich farming), his early non-fiction romanticised African ‘Nature as she was on the morrow of the Creation’.59 A few

in Martial masculinities
Abstract only
Laughing at Livingstone?
Justin D. Livingstone

utility in the service of empire, for authors to play fast and loose with him creatively. This likely compounded a more general aversion to the fictional representation of historical characters in the late nineteenth century. As Naomi Jacobs argues in her book Character of Truth , ‘Under realism, which assumed that historical materials and characters must be treated with objectivity and accuracy

in Livingstone’s ‘Lives’