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Transnational dynamics in post-genocidal restitutions
Elise Pape

Taking its starting point from a socio-anthropological study combining biographical interviews, semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations collected between 2016 and 2018 in Germany, France and the United States among Ovaherero and Nama activists, and also members of different institutions and associations, this article focuses on the question of human remains in the current struggle for recognition and reparation of the genocide of the Ovaherero and Nama from a transnational perspective. First, the text shows the ways in which the memory of human remains can be considered as a driving force in the struggle of the affected communities. Second, it outlines the main points of mismatches of perspective between descendants of the survivors and the responsible museums during past restitutions of human remains from German anthropological collections. Third, the article more closely examines the resources of Ovaherero in the United States in the struggle for recognition and reparation, the recent discovery of Namibian human remains in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the questions that it raises.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Clara Duterme

Established during the Guatemalan Peace Process, the Oslo Accord contemplates the question of compensating the victims of internal armed conflict. Not only was this accord founded on the principles of victims rights, but it also intends to contribute to the democratic reconstruction of Guatemalan society through a process of recognition of victims status and memory – intended to have a reconciling function. The article focuses on the work of two organisations implementing the Oslo Accord and aims to analyse the discourses and practices of the local actors and their perception of the application of victims rights. Civil society actors and members of the National Compensation Programme demonstrate different approaches both in practical work and in representations of what is right. However, revendication of local cultural values is present in all actors discourse, revealing their ambiguous position in regard to state government.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Valérie Robin Azevedo

In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
John Harries, Linda Fibiger, Joan Smith, Tal Adler, and Anna Szöke

This article will query the ethics of making and displaying photographs of human remains. In particular, we will focus on the role of photography in constituting human remains as specimens, and the centrality of the creation and circulation of photographic images to the work of physical anthropology and bioarchaeology. This work has increasingly become the object of ethical scrutiny, particularly in the context of a (post)colonial politics of recognition in which indigenous people seek to recover dominion over their looted material heritage, including the remains of their dead. This ethical concern extends to the question of how and under what circumstances we may display photographs of human remains. Moreover, this is not just a matter of whether and when we should or should not show photographs of the remains of the dead. It is a question of how these images are composed and produced. Our discussion of the ethics of the image is, therefore, indivisible from a consideration of the socio-technical process by which the photographic image is produced, circulated and consumed.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
The lasting legacy of Sir Grafton Elliot Smith
Jenefer Cockitt

the scientific study of human remains. Despite this recognition, studies of Elliot Smith’s career in archaeology and anthropology tend to focus more on his controversial views on cultural diffusionism. The two biographies produced by his colleagues after his death (Dawson 1938b; Elkin and Mackintosh 1974) provide relatively brief descriptions of his work in these areas, which is understandable given that his greatest achievements came from his main area of research, anatomy. As a consequence, a comprehensive assessment of his legacy to both palaeopathology and

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

James Clifford

Western institution of the museum, a cultural form that (as I have already suggested) is being translated throughout the world, in novel and unexpected ways. My wake-up call was the Mashpee tribal recognition trial of 1977, which I attended in Boston as a graduate student and wrote about later in The Predicament of Culture.8 A living Indian tribe on Cape Cod simply was not on my map of historical reality. All of my categories of cultural form and social and temporal continuity were shaken up. And in a way, I have been grappling with the questions posed by the Mashpee

in Curatopia
The changing role of migration museums in Australia
Andrea Witcomb

for, and how do they negotiate relations between different population groups? This chapter argues that the answer to these questions does not simply require an analysis of the ways in which museums have represented these relations over time, for the answers are not only about the politics of representation. The answers also require a recognition that there is a history to curatorial practices, and that this history has an impact on the ways in which relations between ‘us’ and ‘them’, ‘self’ and ‘other’ play out. Furthermore, the history of these practices is not

in Curatopia
Foe, facilitator, friend or forsaken?
Bryony Onciul

for decolonisation in theory and practice. These new ways of working and thinking about heritage, and the increasing need to incorporate source communities in museological work, continue to shape current curatorship. Reimagining the role of the curator, which has been transformed from early amateur, to established expert, to current facilitator,5 has allowed for recognition of different rights, voices and forms of expertise, particularly those of source and local communities.6 These changes have supported a reimagining and reinvigoration of ethnographic museums

in Curatopia
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens
Thea De Armond

’s ‘scientific liberalism’ appears to have built up skills and resources among its beneficiaries, without exacting anything more onerous than Francophilic gratitude from them. Nevertheless, French-Czechoslovak excavations – hyphenated ­excavations – limited the recognition that might accrue to Czechoslovakia. And recognition, for Salač and for Czechoslovakia, was one of the central aims of Classical archaeological excavations. Salač’s story ought to be a familiar one – national aggrandisement via archaeological excavation, what Suzanne Marchand, in the German case, calls

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology