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Elliot Vernon

represented a recognition of the fact that the congregationalists were the leading clergy in Protectorate counsels. Nevertheless, as has been shown in previous chapters, even at the height of the anti-toleration campaign of the mid-1640s many London presbyterians had maintained a language of forbearance for lesser differences within Reformed orthodoxy, without conceding outright toleration. In the 1650s this language could therefore come to the fore without the appearance of an embarrassing volte-face . The hoped

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64

canons’. The Act regulated incomes for cathedral dignitaries to free significant monies for redeployment to under-resourced parishes. The dean and canons of Manchester, however, like those of Durham, St Paul’s, and Westminster Abbey, were assigned annual incomes (£2,000 and £1,000 respectively) twice those of most of their peers in recognition of the projected future significance and status of the city. 39 Given that such sums exceeded the warden and fellows’ expected shares of the common fund and that

in Manchester Cathedral
Abstract only

carvings that are five hundred years old and have been in general usage for that entire period, they are remarkably well preserved. That said two, N4 and N12, are damaged almost beyond recognition and others, notably N11 and S3, are also badly affected. While the historical records do not exist, it is clear from examination that in all cases the damage was inflicted intentionally. The most likely scenario is that they were damaged either during the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century or later during the

in Manchester Cathedral
Elliot Vernon

at the feet of London’s presbyterians. 29 However, against this view, there has been a growing recognition that the politics of 1648 was complex and chaotic and that the question of allegiance does not always yield to simple binary reductions. 30 This more nuanced view has been at the fore in recent Scottish historiography, which has pointed out that a monolithic notion of ‘the Scots’ in these events does not withstand scrutiny. Even the covenanters in this period were divided and fractured over the Hamiltonian

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64
Irigaray and psychoanalytic theory
Hanneke Canters and Grace M. Jantzen

from itself, though it also clearly resembles it in some respects ... The subject, in other words, recognizes itself at the moment it loses itself in/as the other. This other is the foundation and support of its identity, as well as what destabilizes or annihilates it. The subject’s ‘identity’ is based on a (false) recognition of an other as the same. (Grosz 1990: 41) This frustrating experience of inhabiting a fragmented body which looks like a whole resurfaces later in life in dreams of disjointed limbs and in symptoms of hysteria. Images which accompany these

in Forever fluid
David Finnegan

underlined by the recrudescence of the Kildare rebels’ rhetoric during the Geraldine League (1538–41). The unprecedented unity of this native coalition brought about a constitutional revolution that envisaged the incorporation of the Gaelic lordships into a new integrative kingdom of Ireland encompassing the whole island. In return for full recognition of crown sovereignty, the ‘wild Irish’ were to be ‘accepted as subjects, where before they were taken as Irish enemies’ and re-granted their lands under the crown, in return for supporting political and religious reforms

in Irish Catholic identities
S.J. Barnett

with the desire to see the Enlightenment as the duel between reason and faith, and thus the first key steps to modernity. Bayle was a Calvinist, yet at the same time we know that he advocated a more thoroughgoing religious toleration than many philosophes. This fact alone should cause historians to wonder about the role and nature of broader intellectual tendencies – in this case Protestant – which flowed into and helped form the Enlightenment. The ‘public sphere’ and the top-down model of intellectual change The recognition of public opinion as a crucial force

in The Enlightenment and religion
Heather Walton

this chapter so far we have traced a trajectory away from representing women’s literature as ‘everywoman’ in cultural form towards a recognition that literature may embody rather the specific, the located and the particular. To discern a trajectory is not the same as assuming a progressive development in which primitive understandings are displaced by more sophisticated later developments; former positions are modified in the light of criticism. I have stressed that more recent work continues in dialogue with earlier texts. Through an attention to gender difference

in Literature, theology and feminism
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A reading of Luce Irigaray’s Elemental Passions

The recognition of a female subject is relatively recent in Western philosophy, through Western intellectual history, it has been assumed to be normatively male. This book provides the first English commentary on Luce Irigaray's poetic text, Elemental Passions, setting it within its context within continental thought. It explores Irigaray's images and intentions, developing the gender drama that takes place within her book, and draws the reader into the conversation in the text between 'I-woman' and 'you-man'. In Irigaray's philosophy of sexual difference love is of ultimate significance for the development and mutual relationship of two subjects. The book explains how the lack of a subject position for women is related to the emergence of rigid binaries, and catches a hint of how subversive attention to fluidity is to the masculinist pattern. This emphasis on desire and sexual difference obviously intersects with the psychoanalytic theories of S. Freud and J. Lacan, theories which had enormous impact on French philosophers of the time. Irigaray has used vivid imagery from the very beginning of her writings. A few of her images, in particular that of the lips, have become famous in feminist writings. The development of mutually affirming sexual subjects, different but not oppositional, and thereby the destabilizing of traditional binary categories of oppositional logic, is simultaneously highly innovative and has far-reaching consequences. The book presents a critique of Irigaray's methods and contentions to critical scrutiny, revisiting the idea of fluidity in relation to logic.

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Ambiguous passions and misrecognition
Ruth Sheldon

liberal university and with demands emanating from beyond the national boundaries of the modern campus. In this sense, we were struggling with experiences of fragmentation, moved to act by spatial and temporal demands that exceeded our self-​knowledge. This, I will claim, led some students into actions which expressed a deep refusal of recognition in relation to both self and other. This will bring me back to reflect on the limits of the liberal-​democratic framing of Palestine–​Israel, which demands that students act in accordance with universal practical reason, even

in Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics