run-down public transport buses, commonly used in West Beqaa, and developed the Public Transport Regulator application that saved participants the time of waiting and provided destinations of safe pickup points. However, it is clear that these selective start-ups are not a solution that can work at scale, since funding is limited and failure is often implicitly part of such an entrepreneurship journey. Conclusion This critical examination
, development, deployment and integration across social fields. Among these are stakeholder groups (such as regulators, civil society representatives, designers, data scientists, tech entrepreneurs and experts in cybersecurity, intellectual property and data-protection law) with differing priorities, values and skillsets, and consequently different approaches to datafication. In the context of fashion, Wissinger (2018: 779) notes that her interviews reveal that ‘a laissez
This book explains the beginnings of net neutrality regulation in the United States and Europe, and some of the current debate over access to Specialised Services: fast lanes with higher Quality of Service (QoS). It examines the new European law of 2015 and the interaction between that law and interception/privacy. The book takes a deep dive into UK self- and co-regulation of net neutrality. In each of the national case studies, initial confusion at lack of clarity in net neutrality laws gave way to significant cases, particularly since 2014, which have given regulators the opportunity to clarify their legislation or regulation. The majority of such cases relate to mobile net neutrality, and in particular so-called 'zero rating' practices. The book compares results and proposes a regulatory toolkit for those jurisdictions that intend effective practical partial or complete implementation of net neutrality. It sets out a future research agenda for exploring implementation of regulation. The book outlines competition policy's purpose, referring to the exceptionally rigorous recent analysis of competition law suitability to regulate net neutrality by Maniadaki. Having analysed regulatory tools with little chance of success, it then examines what communications regulators actually do: regulating telecoms access based on the UK case study. The book considers whether zero rating poses a serious challenge to Open Internet use. It explores some of the wider international problems of regulating the newest manifestation of discrimination: zero rating. The book also considers the various means by which government can regulate net neutrality.
4 Regulatory state transformation with an unusual approach This chapter examines the specific characteristics of Japan’s ICT regulation after the 1980s. The chapter first considers the impact of state transformation through the institutional characteristics of the ICT regulator as a ministry and the lack of an independent regulator. The impact of the collective view and power relations between state actors regarding issues such as regulatory organisations exemplify the development of state transformation. Japan offers an unusual example in which only a limited
. New legislation has been aimed at clarifying and promoting those values, and a complex new framework of ethics regulators now defines standards and monitors conduct. However, the ethics machinery has often been controversial, and has not always prevented recurrent bouts of misconduct and impropriety. Some of these episodes, like the 2009 MPs’ expenses scandal, have generated extensive media coverage with continuing consequences both for Westminster and for the public’s evaluation of its politicians.1 Others, though less spectacular in their impact, have forced the
the House of Commons appeared to realize until too late how repugnant voters would find the arrangements if they became public. From 2005 pressure mounted for expense claims to be published, and in 2009, through leaks of expense claims to the Daily Telegraph, the details finally broke, with revelations that created a major political crisis. The crisis brought a completely new way of running expenses based on an external regulator. This change proved highly unpalatable to many MPs, and difficult to operate. The difficulties stemmed from both the substance of the new
possible arrangements? This study started from the premise that ethics regulators cannot operate effectively without strong support from those most closely involved in their creation. Regulation is most likely to bed down effectively along an optimal path of consensus about mission and resources where there is agreement on how a regulator should be operated, audited and assessed, where there is good public understanding of the problems in the field, and where there is strong buy-in from the leadership of institutions being regulated. Where a regulator is born without
This book provides a compelling account of the rigging of benchmarks during and after the financial crisis of 2007–8. Written in clear language accessible to the non-specialist, it provides the historical context necessary for understanding the benchmarks – LIBOR, in the foreign exchange market and the Gold and Silver Fixes – and shows how and why they have to be reformed in the face of rapid technological changes in markets. Though banks have been fined and a few traders have been jailed, justice will not be done until senior bankers are made responsible for their actions. Provocative and rigorously argued, this book makes concrete recommendations for improving the security of the financial services industry and holding bankers to account.
– the path-dependent process – to shaping regulators and growing state capacity in regulation. Indeed, the emergence of the regulatory state in Japan, dominated by the core executive within the two chosen sectors, corroborates the proposition by revealing the reconstitution of the Japanese state, rather than the hollowed-out state, in response to the changing nature of governance. This chapter undertakes a systematic analysis of the results drawn from the case studies of Part II. The analysis shapes the foundation on which this book sets out its core argument. The
here to stay, however watered down its principles, however complex its enforcement, however unreasonable or overzealous its defenders, or duplicitous its enemies. On 24 February 2016 I gave a presentation at the closed BEREC workshop on net neutrality, attended by national regulators and the European Commission, alongside Professor Barbara van Schewick, Dr Scott Marcus and Dr