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Mary Chamberlain

outcasts of a standard social system. 2 Of all the problems facing Barbados, race was the most pernicious and intractable. White people dominated the legislative chambers and courtrooms and owned most of the land and the major businesses. Rooted in the history of African slavery, race had become the external marker of status and the internal regulator

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean
The case of New Zealand between the two World Wars
Klaus Nathaus and James Nott

investigates this transformation and argues that it was caused as much by changes in the music and entertainment ecology – for instance, the rise of radio and the growing synergies between dancing and film – as it was the efforts of dance teachers and regulators to keep the public from performing ‘improper’ steps. The first section examines the arrival of jazz and the new and existing spaces provided for public dance. The arrival of jazz contributed to disorder and conflict in the dance halls of the Dominion and was

in Worlds of social dancing
Bussing, race and urban space, 1960s–80s
Author: Olivier Esteves

In 1960–62, a large number of white autochthonous parents in Southall became very concerned that the sudden influx of largely non-Anglophone Indian immigrant children in local schools would hold back their children’s education. It was primarily to placate such fears that ‘dispersal’ (or ‘bussing’) was introduced in areas such as Southall and Bradford, as well as to promote the integration of mostly Asian children. It consisted in sending busloads of immigrant children to predominantly white suburban schools, in an effort to ‘spread the burden’. This form of social engineering went on until the early 1980s. This book, by mobilising local and national archival material as well as interviews with formerly bussed pupils in the 1960s and 1970s, reveals the extent to which dispersal was a flawed policy, mostly because thousands of Asian pupils were faced with racist bullying on the playgrounds of Ealing, Bradford, etc. It also investigates the debate around dispersal and the integration of immigrant children, e.g. by analysing the way some Local Education Authorities (Birmingham, London) refused to introduce bussing. It studies the various forms that dispersal took in the dozen or so LEAs where it operated. Finally, it studies local mobilisations against dispersal by ethnic associations and individuals. It provides an analysis of debates around ‘ghetto schools’, ‘integration’, ‘separation’, ‘segregation’ where quite often the US serves as a cognitive map to make sense of the English situation.

Cheshire on the eve of civil war
Authors: Richard Cust and Peter Lake

This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.

Open Access (free)
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

reason for Japan's distinctive vaccination policies is the long history of outside influences on its institutional framework. German, and more recently, American contacts have had a profound effect on Japan's most fundamental regulatory institutions as well as other features such as regulators’ preference for full self-sufficiency in vaccines and domestically developed strains. Another area where Japan remains distinctive is regulators’ approach

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Duncan Wilson

should move to the Care Quality Commission, while its research licensing work and the functions of the HTA were to be absorbed by ‘a new super-regulator’.55 After the coalition approved the Rawlins report in its March 2011 budget, it announced that this super-regulator would be a new Health Research Authority, which was established in December 2011 and began work on creating ‘a unified approval process’ for biomedical research (after concerted appeals, the HFEA was ultimately saved from this ‘bonfire of the quangos’ in 2013).56 The government’s ‘simplification’ of the

in The making of British bioethics
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s
Duncan Wilson

–Patient Relationship’, p. 777. 186 Richard Horton, ‘Why Is Ian Kennedy’s Healthcare Commission Damaging NHS Care?’, Lancet, Vol. 364 (2004) pp. 401–2 (p. 401). 187 Ibid, p. 402. 188 Ibid. 189 Ian Kennedy, ‘Setting of Clinical Standards’, Lancet, Vol. 364 (2004) p. 1399. 190 Ibid. 191 Charlotte Santry, ‘Healthcare Regulator Longed for Government’s Embrace’, Health Service Journal, 12 November 2008, available online at (accessed 6 February 2014). 192 Charlotte Santry, ‘Sir Ian Kennedy Champions “Fearless” NHS Regulator’, Health Service Journal, 12 November 2009

in The making of British bioethics
Katey Logan

was created without NHS ‘approval’, certainly below the radar of state regulators or service commissioners, and yet its publication in the retail magazine implies editorial endorsement, and its humour, though perhaps ambiguous, communicates both resistance and challenge to the new healthcare order. It also shows the ubiquitous and pervasive nature of the NHS’s cultural reach, beyond national broadcast and newspaper outlets. The impact of the NHS, even in its first decade, was being negotiated through visual imagery in

in Posters, protests, and prescriptions
Patrick O’Leary

river 4,000 feet (1,219 metres) long with twelve scouring sluices of twenty-feet (six-metre) span on its left, and with massive training works on its right. The supply channel which connected the works with the original inundation canal was eight miles long with a bed width of 108 feet (32.4 metres). A regulator allowed up to 8,000 cubic feet (226 cubic metres) of water per second to pass through

in Servants of the empire
David Finnegan

and quickening form’, they recognised the monarch’s central role as the regulator of a religiously pluralistic commonwealth: we may behold in a politique body or great monarchical frame in so great a diversity of nations, difference of customs, variety of delights, affections and inclinations, in which we observe men to differ, and so disagree one from another, yet that they might be all governed by one sceptre, and 88 Early modern struggles contained under the name and label of one diadem, and under the knot of one union, and dominion, in the league of concord

in Irish Catholic identities