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Masahiro Mogaki

4 Regulatory state transformation with an unusual approach This chapter examines the specific characteristics of Japan’s ICT ­regulation after the 1980s. The chapter first considers the impact of state transformation through the institutional characteristics of the ICT regulator as a ministry and the lack of an independent regulator. The impact of the collective view and power relations between state actors regarding issues such as regulatory organisations exemplify the development of state transformation. Japan offers an unusual example in which only a limited

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan
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Regulating public ethics in the United Kingdom
David Hine and Gillian Peele

. New legislation has been aimed at clarifying and promoting those values, and a complex new framework of ethics regulators now defines standards and monitors conduct. However, the ethics machinery has often been controversial, and has not always prevented recurrent bouts of misconduct and impropriety. Some of these episodes, like the 2009 MPs’ expenses scandal, have generated extensive media coverage with continuing consequences both for Westminster and for the public’s evaluation of its politicians.1 Others, though less spectacular in their impact, have forced the

in The regulation of standards in British public life
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Statutory regulation and its difficulties
David Hine and Gillian Peele

the House of Commons appeared to realize until too late how repugnant voters would find the arrangements if they became public. From 2005 pressure mounted for expense claims to be published, and in 2009, through leaks of expense claims to the Daily Telegraph, the details finally broke, with revelations that created a major political crisis. The crisis brought a completely new way of running expenses based on an external regulator. This change proved highly unpalatable to many MPs, and difficult to operate. The difficulties stemmed from both the substance of the new

in The regulation of standards in British public life
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Higher standards, lower credibility?
David Hine and Gillian Peele

possible arrangements? This study started from the premise that ethics regulators cannot operate effectively without strong support from those most closely involved in their creation. Regulation is most likely to bed down effectively along an optimal path of consensus about mission and resources where there is agreement on how a regulator should be operated, audited and assessed, where there is good public understanding of the problems in the field, and where there is strong buy-in from the leadership of institutions being regulated. Where a regulator is born without

in The regulation of standards in British public life
Masahiro Mogaki

  – the path-dependent process – to shaping regulators and growing state capacity in regulation. Indeed, the emergence of the regulatory state in Japan, dominated by the core executive within the two chosen sectors, corroborates the proposition by revealing the reconstitution of the Japanese state, rather than the hollowed-out state, in response to the changing nature of governance. This chapter undertakes a systematic analysis of the results drawn from the case studies of Part II. The analysis shapes the foundation on which this book sets out its core argument. The

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan
The role of the Committee on Standards in Public Life
David Hine and Gillian Peele

CSPL is not however a direct ethics regulator, still less an ‘anti-corruption’ agency. Its role is to recommend strategies to improve standards of ethics and propriety. It has no power to impose them. It is non-statutory and has relatively modest resources. There is a small secretariat of three or four seconded civil-service support staff, so, as with parliamentary select committees, most of its ‘input’ comes from hearings of expert witnesses, though there is also a small research advisory board to supervise a modest amount of public-opinion survey work.3 Recently

in The regulation of standards in British public life
Joe McGrath

6 The new architecture of enforcement Introduction The contemporary architecture of enforcement is significantly different from the traditional architecture that preceded it. From the 1990s, the conventional crime monopoly on corporate deviancy became fragmented. Specialist, interdisciplinary agencies with enhanced powers policed and prosecuted wrongdoing. Furthermore, the exclusive dominance of conventional criminal law faded. Regulators increasingly relied on regulatory criminal law, administrative fines and civil orders to sanction companies and their

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
The Third Way and the case of the Private Finance Initiative
Eric Shaw

commodification of service provision. It still upholds a large public sector, but one increasingly permeated by market arrangements and a more commercial ethos. The Third Way prescribes for the State a major role in social life, but less as a direct provider than as purchaser and regulator. It would retain responsibility for guaranteeing access to services free at the point of delivery

in The Third Way and beyond
Bernadette Connaughton

waste collection in a bid to remove rival private operators, Panda and Greenstar Ltd. The judge informed the High Court that if a private company collects waste, they own it and can determine where that waste goes (Kelly, 2009 ). The withdrawal of local authorities from direct service provision in waste in 2011 led to a concentration of firms and also removed the interpretation of a conflict of interest, since local authorities were both regulators and competitors with the private sector. The development of the market to remove local authorities and replace them with

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
Olivier Lewis

consciously, intentionally, and instrumentally. This renders an actor’s actual group membership uncertain. Also unclear is the degree to which the inhabitants of a population see a government and its security forces as being the legitimate regulators of violence. Finally, as terrorism is a mere tactic, one can question the utility of using the concept to identify actors and

in Counter-terrorism and civil society