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Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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David M. Bergeron

also stood at political and cultural crossroads. James had just finished his first ten years of English rule, and the events of 1613 changed the political and personal dynamic in the royal family and court forever. Further, no subsequent year in the Jacobean period equalled the moments of cultural brilliance of this year. The burning of the Globe on 29 June marked an ending and a

in Shakespeare’s London 1613
David M. Bergeron

settled on Frederick as being suitable, to the chagrin of Queen Anne but with the support of Henry, who longed for such a stalwart Protestant to marry into the Stuart royal family. In the negotiations, James offered a dowry of £40,000, and an allowance; the Germans responded with an offer of £1,500 per annum for Elizabeth, and provided for the princess’s retinue of thirty-six men and thirteen women. ‘If

in Shakespeare’s London 1613
The writers, the artificers and the livery companies
Tracey Hill

, entertainments and hospitality relating to visits from members of the royal family and other non-civic dignitaries, although on those infrequent occasions the set-up was very similar to the approach taken over mayoral Shows.3 The costs of the Shows fell to individual Company members, whose putative contribution was assessed: for example, in 1604 the highest rank of the Bachelors of the Haberdashers’ Company who were going to be ‘in foins’ (wearing pine-marten fur) paid a charge of £3 6s each, those wearing the more lowly ‘Budge’ (lambs’ wool) £2 10s, and the other members

in Pageantry and power
Political and contemporary contexts of the Shows
Tracey Hill

Aries, Middleton had referred to James, albeit in parentheses, as ‘that ioy of honest hearts’ and as the king ‘that Vnites Kingdomes [and] who encloses / All in the Armes of Loue’ (sigs B2v–B3r). A rather more contingent form of goodwill towards the royal family and state policy is in evidence in 1623. As we have seen in relation to Himatia-Poleos, Chruso-thriambos and Metropolis coronata, Munday’s texts can also be seen to have contemporary political dimensions. However, if he did comment on the underlying moment of the 1618 Show – the execution of Ralegh taking

in Pageantry and power
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New perspectives
Editor: Lisa Hopkins

Bess of Hardwick was one of the most extraordinary figures of Elizabethan England. She was born the daughter of a country squire. By the end of her long life (which a recent redating of her birth suggests was even longer than previously thought) she was the richest woman in England outside the royal family, had risen to the rank of countess and seen two of her daughters do the same, and had built one of the major ‘prodigy houses’ of the period. While married to her fourth husband, the earl of Shrewsbury, she had been gaoler to Mary, Queen of Scots, and her granddaughter by her second marriage, Lady Arbella Stuart, was of royal blood and might have been succeeded to the throne of England. This wide-ranging collection, which draws on the recent edition of her correspondence, brings out the full range of her activities and impact. It contains a biography, analysis of her language use, consideration of the roles of her servants and the management and nature of her households (including the complex and allegorical decorative scheme of Hardwick and its famous embroideries), and a new appraisal of the relationship between Bess and her granddaughter Arbella.

For women writers, the decades of the English Civil War were of special importance. This book presents a complex and rewarding poetic culture that is both uniquely women-centred and integrally connected to the male canonical poetry. It brings together extensive selections of poetry by the five most prolific and prominent women poets of the English Civil War: Anne Bradstreet, Hester Pulter, Margaret Cavendish, Katherine Philips, and Lucy Hutchinson. All these five women were attracting new and concerted attention as poets by seventeenth-century women. Bradstreet's poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, and the later volume of Several Poemsincluded revised texts of those poems and several new ones. Each version of the poems spoke more directly on the context of the English Civil War. Pulter's poems construe Broadfield as a place of unwelcome isolation: she describes herself as 'shut up in a country grange', 'tied to one habitation', and 'buried, thus, alive'. Philips's poetry was first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, suggest Philips as a poet writing on matters of political significance. Cavendish's two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. Across poetry and prose, print and manuscript, Hutchinson's writing bears the marks of her fervent hostility to corrupt rulers and her remarkably broad education, adventurous reading habits, and energetic intellect.

Keith P. Luria

This chapter examines the conversion of seventeenth-century Vietnamese women to Catholicism and the narration of their conversions in the accounts of European missionaries. In Annam (as early-modern Europeans called the two polities Tonkin and Cochinchina), missionaries from the Jesuit order and from the French Missions Étrangères de Paris converted tens of thousands of women and men during the seventeenth century and composed narratives of their most notable converts. In the accounts women stand out for two reasons: a number were from high ranking court families, including members of the royal families, and a number of the lower-ranking women converts suffered from demonic possession. The most spectacular conversion cases concerned women spirit-mediums, who played an important role in Annamese religious observances as oracles. The missionaries described them as possessed by demons. Once converted, these former spirit-mediums became miracle workers, and thus fit into another category recognizable to European readers. But the Catholic Reformation had ambivalent feelings at best about such women playing an important role in the evangelization campaign. Thus missionaries seeking credibility and narrating conversions by working with what Annamese culture offered them stretched the limits of what was acceptable to their audience at home.

in Conversions
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Editor: Gregory Vargo

The first collection of its kind, Chartist Drama makes available four plays written or performed by members of the Chartist movement of the 1840s. Emerging from the lively counter-culture of this protest campaign for democratic rights, these plays challenged cultural as well as political hierarchies by adapting such recognisable genres as melodrama, history plays, and tragedy for performance in radically new settings. A communal, public, and embodied art form, drama was linked for the Chartists with other kinds of political performance: the oratory of the mass platform, festival-like outdoor meetings, and the elaborate street theatre of protest marches. Plays that Chartists wrote or staged advanced new interpretations of British history and criticised aspects of the contemporary world. And Chartist drama intervened in fierce strategic arguments within the movement. Most notably, poet-activist John Watkins’s John Frost, which dramatises the gripping events of the Newport rising of 1839, in which twenty-two Chartists lost their lives, defends the rebellion and the Chartist recourse to violence as a means for the movement to achieve its aims. The volume’s appendices document over one hundred Chartist dramatic performances, staged by activists in local Chartist associations or at professional benefits at some of London’s largest working-class theatres. Gregory Vargo’s introduction and notes elucidate the previously unexplored world of Chartist dramatic culture, a context that promises to reshape what we know about early Victorian popular politics and theatre.

Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, were all placed at the beginning of the volume – suggesting that Philips should be read as a poet writing on matters of political significance.2 For Margaret Cavendish, the two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. While 1653 is 318 Textual introduction usually prioritised as the first iteration of Cavendish

in Women poets of the English Civil War