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Abstract only
Susan Royal

The Reformation of the church also entailed a reformation of its rites. These conduits to grace, determined by the scholastic theologian Peter Lombard in the twelfth century, consisted of seven sacraments: baptism, the Eucharist, confirmation, ordination, marriage, penance, and extreme unction. By John Wyclif’s day, these were the very essence of medieval salvation. Medieval reformers, in particular Wyclif and Jan Hus, disputed the notion of transubstantiation, but it was Protestants who achieved a more

in Lollards in the English Reformation
Benjamin Hoadly and the Eucharist
Robert G. Ingram

Chapter 5 The sacrament Socinianized: Benjamin Hoadly and the Eucharist T he Eucharist long exerted centripetal and centrifugal forces on Christianity, and the Church of England’s formularies captured why that was the case. The Thirty-Nine Articles declared that the sacraments were ‘ordained of Christ’ and were ‘not only badges or tokens of Christian men’s profession, but rather … certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and God’s good will towards us, by which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and

in Reformation without end
Catechisms and the question of the fundamentals of the faith
Amy G. Tan

which appeared as a single answer (rather than briefer answers to multiple questions), as well as particular duties of individuals toward one another in various relationships. Large Catechisme was also noteworthy for its back matter. It included exemplary prayers that expanded upon the Lord’s prayer, creed, decalogue, and sacraments; these were to function as a ‘short explanation

in The pastor in print
Innovating in the reference genre (and turning against episcopacy?)
Amy G. Tan

controversy. Thus, under ‘Sacrament’ appeared a subheading clarifying there were ‘two sorts’ of sacraments, and a brief comment that it was ‘usual to put is for signify ’ (followed by several scripture references). 16 The former implicitly countered the Catholic enumeration of sacraments, and the latter unmistakably intended to refute a

in The pastor in print
Elliot Vernon

to the Lord’s supper. 11 Some went so far as to elect lay assistants to assist the minister. For example, on 23 January 1645 Edmund Calamy asked the vestry of St Mary, Aldermanbury to choose three men ‘to asist him in exammining and preparing the people of the parish for their admittance to the sacrament of the Lords’ supper’. 12 Likewise, in 1645 the vestry of St Stephen, Coleman Street, which had facilitated the ejection of John Goodwin for denying the Lord’s supper to all but members of his own gathered congregation

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64
Amy G. Tan

to the whole church, rather than to the ‘principal members thereof’, belonged the ‘power of Christ, that is, authority to preach, to administer the sacraments, and to exercise the censures of the Church’. This was a foundation for ‘all the rest of their untruths’. 52 Secondly, Bernard conceived of the main argument against separatism as, simply, that the Church of England was

in The pastor in print
Abstract only
Elliot Vernon

sectaries, particularly the antinomian fringe that had emerged in London during the early Stuart period. Opposition to the Laudian canons of 1640, together with the outbreak of the covenanter revolution in Scotland, were the banners under which clerical and lay resistance to Charles I’s monarchy could gather, but this was fuelled by a decade of growing unease with the direction of the Church of England. For a sizeable proportion of the clergy and laity, the means to protect the ecclesial marks of true doctrine and pure sacraments

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64
Kathleen G. Cushing

type of rhetoric, of course, was scarcely an innovation in the late tenth and eleventh centuries, although, as will be seen, both its prevalence and vehemence was revolutionary. As any historian of the late antique and medieval Church can testify, ecclesiastical sources are full of references to concerns about ritual purity and fears of contamination from an early date. For instance, Irish texts such as the mid-sixth-century Vinnian and mid-seventh-century Cummean penitentials repeatedly display anxiety about the purity of the sacraments and those who handled them

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Elliot Vernon

of papers to Parliament seeking a full jurisdiction for presbyteries to exclude ‘ignorant and scandalous’ persons from the sacrament of the Lord’s supper. 7 After initially seeking clarification of the assembly’s proposals, the Commons’ grand committee debated the matter on 24 April. While it was ultimately decided that presbyteries should have a power of suspension, a number of MPs voiced their discomfort with affording the projected presbyterian settlement disciplinary powers that were independent of the supervision of

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64
Abstract only
The Cavalier Parliament, the Great Ejection of 1662 and the first years of dissent
Elliot Vernon

agents as regular conventicles, as was the house of Frances, Countess of Exeter in Little Britain. 64 These conventicles appear to have largely hosted preaching and fasting, although there is some evidence that ejected ministers were also celebrating the sacraments with their lay followers. 65 It was reported that Bartholomew Beale, the auditor of the imprest of the Exchequer, had Arthur Jackson baptise one of his children, even though the child ‘was not weake’. Beale had earlier that year been informed on for paying for the

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64