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Dennis Butts

disappeared, and the new writers of adventure stories preferred to work in the more traditional mode of historical romance, or to experiment in fantasy and science fiction. It is significant that even the one great exception to this decline, W. E. Johns, who did retain his popularity into the 1960s, himself turned to writing science fiction from 1954. 6 The earliest writers in the pre-1914 phase owe a good deal

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
The British Interplanetary Society before the Second World War
Charlotte Sleigh

cosmic science and science fiction. Although he does not acknowledge the cosmic designation of the ‘éspaces’ of his title, Foucault’s account of how space as medieval, ordered emplacement was transformed into an infinite potentiality of spatial extension is founded on a discussion of that astronomical hero, Galileo. One might say that ‘space’, in the cosmic sense, was implicated in space, in the heterotopian sense, from its inception (one need only think of the counter-site of the Starship Enterprise, first launched in the year before Foucault’s lecture). Certainly the

in Scientific governance in Britain, 1914–79
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The future of cities and the future of war
Adam Page

The first chapter covers the period from the end of the First World War until 1935, when the Air Raid Precautions Sub-Committee became a department in the Home Office. It draws together military, literary, planning and architectural visions of urban areas to highlight how dystopian versions of the future and responses to contemporary urban problems influenced the development of air power theories. It demonstrates that there was a widespread assumption that cities would be the primary targets in air war, and highlights the way airpower theorists’ arguments drew on perceptions of urban populations as weak and vulnerable. Science fiction and cultural anxieties about the future and cities were concentrated around the threat of bombing, and architects and planners were recasting their task as planning for survival in an anticipated era of air war. The three sections of this chapter connect the speculations and extrapolations of airpower theory to the debates in urbanism about the problems of the cities, and highlight the influence of aviation and the aerial view on speculations about the future shape of society and the possibility of urban annihilation from the air.

in Architectures of survival
Suzanne Treister and Roger Luckhurst

with ‘outsider art’, HEXEN unravelled a host of links between military research, occult ritual, and mass popular culture. The diagrams included in the work make frenetic links between Second World War American rocket research, the smuggling of Nazi technicians, the black magic occultism of Aleister Crowley and other 140 Machine-Ghost.indb 140 6/12/2013 12:11:38 PM What happens in the gaps  141 self-proclaimed masters of the dark arts, weird psychical research experiments, science fiction, The Wizard of Oz, and the Jewish kabbala. Since HEXEN, Treister has explored

in The machine and the ghost
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Writing American sexual histories
Author: Barry Reay

The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.

A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

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Ex machina
Katia Pizzi

. Combining elements of science fiction, historical fiction, fantasy, afrocentrism and magic realism, afrofuturism interrogates the historical predicament of black people addressing the concerns of the African diaspora through the lens of technoculture and science fiction. Race and technology underpin afrofuturism’s exploration of black identity in utopian and dystopian frames. 28 Afrofuturism encompasses creative writers (e.g. Samuel R. Delany and Octavia Butler), painters (e.g. Jean-Michel Basquiat and Angelbert Metoyer, celebrated in exhibitions in Harlem in 2014 and

in Italian futurism and the machine
Gordon Pirie

? Would higher be mightier? Might there be an imperial role for aviation in the fashion that military officials and science fiction writers had been suggesting since the mid-1880s? 1 Antecedents In London, sentiment for maintaining imperial tradition was strong. Indeed, in a precocious step that mimicked the establishment of the Navy League, the Aerial League of the British Empire

in Air empire
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The Cold War as an imaginary war
Matthew Grant and Benjamin Ziemann

the future responses to hypothetical potential future actions. As such, it was played out as a form of somehow knowledgeable anticipation of the future, an anticipation that incorporated elements of science fiction even when this was not the designated genre of reflecting potential outcomes of the use of nuclear weapons. Nowhere was the close interplay between science fiction and the reality of nuclear war planning more obvious than in the US strategic defence initiative (SDI), launched in 1983, with its v 23 v Matthew Grant and Benjamin Ziemann core metaphor of

in Understanding the imaginary war
Open Access (free)
The hygienic utopia in Jules Verne, Camille Flammarion, and William Morris
Manon Mathias

This chapter analyses attitudes towards dirt and bodily waste in nineteenth-century British and French science fiction novels as a means of understanding perceptions of disease and hygiene in the early period of bacteriology. One of its aims is to consider what this tells us about the modern individual's relationship with the body, especially the ways in which the ambivalence of this relationship is distinctively explored through literary texts. To do this, I examine three utopian novels from the last decades of the century, when the emphasis on extreme cleanliness

in Progress and pathology