that Western secularism (France’s
laïcité ; the United States’
constitutional commitment to separation of church and state) thinks
of as deeply personal and individually variable, 21 what does this mean we can expect
of Foucault with respect to these questions? Perhaps a publically
performed spirituality functions like the ‘public
space’ of artistic practices ruled by
the development of a new code of social manners between the sexes as a result of mixing. It was hailed by the Freethinker William Shaen as ‘one of the most important social movements of the day’ (Gleadle, 1995 : 152). Amongst those, and equally significant in the challenging of the dominant constructions of womanhood, Secularism provided a most powerful intellectual tool.
Freethought or the empire of reason
After the decline of Chartism, and until the rise of Socialism in the 1880s, a loose network of heterogeneous atheistic and
use of the referendum was a result of a compromise that emerged in the period after the Sonderbund War (1848).
The Radical Party (from 1894 renamed and most commonly known as the Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz , FDP) was the dominant force in Swiss politics immediately after the civil war. The party pursued a twin track of muscular secularism and free-market and laissez-faire liberalism. Under the majoritarian (first-past-the-post) electoral system the party was able to win a majority of the seats in the Bundesrat (the executive) without winning a
and Iran regarding a ceasefire in Syria. Then, poking a thumb in NATO’s eye, Turkey in July 2017 reportedly reached an agreement with Moscow to purchase as well as co-produce a major Russian anti-aircraft defense missile system.
Ankara has also expressed a willingness to work with moderate Islamic regimes, including Tehran. President Erdoğan seems to be transitioning from Atatürk’s 1924 secularism toward a kind of Sunni-Islam-fueled nationalism, seeking to retrieve some of the Ottoman Empire’s former stature in the Islamic world.
This perceived drift away from
methodically undermined the institutions of Islamic law. 38 More significant than the military occupation by the West of most of the Muslim world were the economic and cultural concessions forced on Muslims. The abolition of the Caliphate in 1922 and the wholesale adoption of Kemalist secularism in Istanbul, the former capital of the Ottoman Empire and symbol of Muslim unity, was an act of unprecedented historic significance. Of course, long before it was formally abolished, the Ottoman Caliphate’s legitimacy was seriously undermined; it had ceased to offer effective
. Ashurst, and the Mills) and the young man became a powerful writer and public lecturer (several female figures of Victorian feminism attended his meetings regularly). Holyoake warmed to Robert Owen’s ideas of co-operation and rational religion, and was devoted to Auguste Comte, whose Religion of Humanity contributed to the shaping of Secularism. He published The History of the Rochdale Pioneers (1857), The History of Co-operation in England (1875), The Co-operative Movement of To-day (1891) and Origin and Nature of Secularism (1896). An indefatigable activist
of recuperating the overlooked and the ‘open-market interaction’ between such materials through which they are liberated from ideological norms that move instead towards an ‘exhaustively informed’ secularism. My sense of the ecological eye is not about over-valorising the previously ‘missed’ in art historical accounts in the name of liberal inclusivity, despite some conceptual parallels between normative liberalism and the nonhierarchical political positions, new materialism and the decentred, non-anthropocentric perspective that I propose. There is as much
championing minority rights and secularism, Hungarian Civic Alliance (Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség), Hungary’s ruling party led by Prime Minister Viktor Orban, has most of the traits of a populist radical right party. Fidesz is radically nationalistic, anti-immigrant and anti-elite.
Fidesz’s turn to the right can best be explained by the natural democratic tendency to trend toward a two-party system combined with the opportunism of its most prominent founder. Viktor Orban, previously known as a firebrand against communism, convinced the youthful party to abandon its
cent devaluation against China. 55
The Portuguese political scene was dominated by two unimpressive parties, the Socialists on the mild left and the Social Democrats, further to the right. Their only real differences sprang from cultural divisions to do with Portugal’s deep cleavage between clericalism and secularism as well as controversies continuing to flow from the short-lived revolution of 1974–75 which followed the collapse of a lengthy far-right dictatorship. Both these ideologically opaque parties were absorbed with placing their clients in advantageous
limit it by constructing a government that checked the effects of that liberty. American politics, as James Bryce ( 1888 , p. 299) once formulated it, is suspended between the theology of Calvin and the philosophy of Hobbes.
This makes the American notion of liberty different from that of the philosophes of Continental Europe. The roots of the American notion of liberty are very much defined by opposition to the Anglican Church and to the state that this Church served. It was weak on the reason-based secularism, the material equality and the collectivist