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Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

who see the world as an open conflict between different and competing nations (with the invariable threat of anarchism always lurking in the shadows), to modernists more generally who see the world as being threatened by the tensions caused between secularism and religious orthodoxy, and to those liberals who have appropriated Carl Schmitt’s point about politics being all about friends versus enemies. Difference, then, is the problem to be solved or at least safely managed. Violence results not from violence but from forced homogenisation and the colonisation of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

religion in Turkey, what has been achieved in this field, and the almost religious zeal – “secular fundamentalism” – in which secularism has been applied in the country: The proclamation of the Republic in 1923 was followed by the abolition of the office of the caliphate in 1924. Other steps were taken in the course of the 1920s and early 1930s towards secularizing the Republic. These included the abolition of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Pious Foundations, abolition of religious courts, proscription of male religious headgear, namely the

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Amikam Nachmani

politics, etc. “It’s a bit tricky counting on Turkey’s top brass: they feel committed to defend their country’s democracy – as they perceive it – secularism and westernization. That is why they rush to intervene in domestic politics whenever they smell that the three or each of them are under assault” – is a typical NATO attempt to understand the Turkish internal realities. 15 We have already mentioned that more than 20,000 Turkish laws and regulations must be amended and improved to conform to EU requirements. True, Ankara tries hard and does

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Amikam Nachmani

Israelis jumped sky-high when its F-15s forced an Iranian aircraft on its way to Damascus to land in Dyarbakir. There its cargo was searched for weapons that Tehran might have shipped to the Lebanese Hizbullah. Israel has also to learn from Turkey how to impose secularism or how to give the coup de grace to the old theocratic order, the same as Mustafa Kemal did, by abolishing the wearing of the fez in 1925. (Israel needs an authoritative, secularly courageous leader like Ataturk, insisted the writer). And, unlike the Israeli political system, the writer called to learn

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Abstract only
Ayla Göl

advancing an alternative form of modernity was important for other Muslims, but the relationship between Islam, modernity and secularism has only been mentioned here in passing. The Ottoman Empire was the last Islamic imperial state when it was Conclusion 193 obliged to redefine itself as a ‘multinational secular state’ as a member of the Concert of Europe in 1856.15 This participation compelled the Ottoman state to begin the process of emulative modernisation. ‘Secularism and positivism’ were the two important elements of this modernisation, which reached its

in Turkey facing east
Sagarika Dutt

efforts to achieve them. The future of secularism Secularism can mean equal and due respect for all religions and faiths or the separation of the state from the church.The preamble to the constitution of India says that India is a ‘secular democratic republic’. One of the fundamental rights guaranteed to the people of India by the constitution is the right to freedom of religion. There are three restrictions on the exercise of this right: it should not adversely affect public order, morality or health. The democratization of Indian politics However, communal riots

in India in a globalized world
Sagarika Dutt

established and to the principles of socialism, secularism and democracy and would uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.3 The BJP’s election manifesto of 1996 (the year in which it emerged as the single largest party in the Lok Sabha and formed a coalition government) stated unequivocally that the ‘BJP is committed to the concept of one nation, one people, one culture’, and asserted that its nationalistic vision is defined by the nation’s ancient cultural heritage; ‘from this belief flows our faith in cultural nationalism which is the core of Hindutva

in India in a globalized world
Michael Mannin

Exceptionalism Dominant identity Community State dirigisme Growing materialism State/business complex War as a solution Hard power Unilateralism War as a solution Hard power Multilateralism mixed with unilateralism Social conservatism Realist world view Sustainable development Redefining the family Life-work balance Criminal rights/ rehabilitation Secularism Oppose capital punishment Perpetual peace Soft power Multilateralism Social liberalism Liberal world view Social conservatism Realist world view Consumerism Maintaining the family Work-life balance Societal protection

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Abstract only
Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order revisited
James Dunkerley

. Heilbrunn fairly identifies the deficiencies of the text as intrinsic to its genre: ‘Like so many previous efforts to devise grand theories of history and politics –​from Spengler to Toynbee to Fukuyama –​ Huntington’s collapses under the weight of its own assumptions.’ Ibid. 9 Quoted in R.  Betts, ‘Conflict or cooperation? Three visions revisited’, Foreign Affairs, 89:6 (2010), pp. 186–​94 at p. 190. In response to the original article, Ajami had declared, ‘Huntington is wrong. He has underestimated the tenacity of modernity and secularism in places that acquired these

in American foreign policy
Abstract only
Identity politics and reticent Europeanisation
Dimitris Tsarouhas

, based on a ‘raw’ interpretation of secularism and the ascribing of a particular political and cultural stance in the public as well as private sphere. It is no coincidence that the country’s armed forces emerged in this period as the guardians of the Republican regime and intervened in political life to ‘safeguard’ the Republic’s achievements from forces inside or outside the country suspected of seeking to undermine them. In the same period and especially after the 1970s, political Islam emerged as an explicit party political force and set out a narrative about the

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood