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Janet Weston

anxiety among policy-makers and the media alike. Injecting drug use before and during incarceration, sex between men in prison, violence among inmates and towards staff, overcrowding and bad hygiene, and the poor general health of many of those behind bars were all highlighted as factors potentially contributing to the rapid spread of disease. 2 This, coupled with concern about the provision of adequate

in Histories of HIV/AIDS in Western Europe
Daryl Leeworthy

new millennium – perhaps coincidental to the decline in community-based support services but, equally, perhaps not. 85 In fact, the sharpest rise in rates of infection in this period were between heterosexual men and women; in 2003, there were more than sixty reports of HIV transmission as a result of sex between men and women compared with around forty-five because of sex between men. 86 (This

in Histories of HIV/AIDS in Western Europe
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Janet Weston and Hannah J. Elizabeth

The epidemiological picture also varied from place to place; in New York and Edinburgh, injecting drug use was understood to be a very common mode of HIV transmission, whereas elsewhere in the USA and UK the risk factor dominating official data was sex between men. 33 Inevitably, who was affected by HIV/AIDS and what they experienced as a result would vary dramatically, depending on location. Yet we still know relatively little

in Histories of HIV/AIDS in Western Europe
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Tommy Dickinson

century.122 In 1898, with virtually no debate, Parliament passed an amendment to the 1824 Vagrancy Act. The main impetus of the 1898 amendment was to expand the state’s capacity to imprison bullies or pimps who lived on the earnings of female prostitution; however, it soon also became the Victorian state’s draconian regulation of all forms of sex between men.123 According to the Act, ‘every male person who in any public place persistently solicits or importunes for immoral purposes shall be deemed a rogue and a vagabond and may be dealt with accordingly’.124 Seth Koven

in ‘Curing queers’
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Stories of violence, danger, and men out of control
Amy Milne-Smith

Inquiry 37:3 (2013), pp. 202–3. 100 C. Upchurch, Before Wilde: Sex Between Men in Britain's Age of Reform (Berkeley, 2013), p. 133. 101 C. Casey, ‘Common Misperceptions: The Press and Victorian Views of Crime’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 41:3 (2011), pp. 368

in Out of his mind
Tommy Dickinson

­ubsequent disgrace, not only for having committed a ‘crime’ but, furthermore, because the ejection from the post meant that the ­individual was not ‘doing his bit’.19 Indeed, courts martial for sex between men increased during the war years – rising from 48 in 1939 to 324 in 1944/45.20 Moreover, pathological, psychological and psychoanalytical interpretations and analysis of homosexuality can be seen to be appearing on both sides of the Atlantic during World War II. Psychiatrists within the US army were promoting the concept that homosexuality was a pathology and making a

in ‘Curing queers’