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Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Causing harm
Alannah Tomkins

and murder, where the latter includes all cases of suspected intentional, malicious killing rather than instances of incompetent treatment.1 It argues that physical injury inflicted by medical men was likely to be penalised lightly by Victorian courts and exonerated by their peers unless, or until, the apparent evidence of gross wrong-doing became so blatant that wholesale condemnation was unavoidable. As the chapter demonstrates, this was never decisively the case in relation to sexual violence, but could apply in relation to murder or suspected murder. In some of

in Medical misadventure in an age of professionalisation, 1780–1890
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In search of global health
Didier Fassin

, and even beyond, the epidemiological interpretation of the rapid spread of the infection on the African continent was exclusively focused on sexual behaviour, sexual promiscuity and sexual violence, often at the cost of racist extrapolations, as Gilles Bibeau ( 1991 ) showed. By contrast, the social causes leading to survival sex and the medical responsibilities related to unsafe injections were systematically ignored. Similarly, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, PEPFAR, which its promoters claimed to be the most important health initiative ever taken

in Global health and the new world order
Clement Masakure

a lens into the social and economic changes that were taking place or being accelerated by colonialism. Zimbabwean scholars have also shown how women used courts to redress injustice. See for example, R. Roberts , Litigants and households: African disputes and colonial courts in the French Soudan, 1895–1912 ( Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann , 2005 ); K. Benson and J. M. Chadya , ‘ Ukubhinya: gender and sexual violence in Bulawayo, colonial Zimbabwe, 1946–1956 ’, Journal of Southern African Studies , 31 : 3 ( 2005 ), pp. 587–610 ; and T. B. Zimudzi

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
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Tommy Dickinson

), animals (bestiality) or inanimate objects (fetishism). Also included were sado-masochism, sexual violence, rape, incest, exhibitionism, voyeurism and transsexualism.31 Treatments were developed for all of these categories of sexual deviations.32 However, homosexuality was the category which predominately received treatments and where we can see clear shifts in attitudes towards individuals.33 Six participants in this book received treatments for homosexuality. Transvestism was also treated fairly widely; however, not to the same extent as homosexuality, and only two

in ‘Curing queers’
Thomas D’haeninck, Jan Vandersmissen, Gita Deneckere, and Christophe Verbruggen

health in the world. It has projects on a range of issues such as AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception, abortion, family planning, maternal mortality, genital mutilation, women’s and children’s health and sexual violence. The centre’s strength is the dynamic interaction between multidisciplinary science and development cooperation and the implementation of research

in Medical histories of Belgium