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Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

sexual violence against women. 9 In 2000, the UN General Assembly adopted a protocol to the 1979 UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) allowing individuals to seek redress for breaches of the treaty and establishing an inquiry procedure where there is ‘reliable information’ of ‘grave or systematic violations’ of the Convention. 10 International institutions began to

in The boundaries of international law
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

Statute, the interests of women have been accorded comparatively serious attention. The following sections outline the ways this has been manifested. Women’s participation in the Tribunals In reacting to the allegations of sexual violence against women and appointing staff to the international criminal Tribunals, a greater degree of understanding of the need for

in The boundaries of international law
Mariam Salehi

were held in Tunis and other parts of the country. Some hearings covered specific topics, such as sexual violence, cyber-dissidence, or corruption. Remnants of ad hoc measures, specialised chambers, and reparations Despite the start of the planned transitional justice project, the ad hoc measures continued to play a contingent role and intersected at various points with the planned process. The court of cassation annulled the judgments of the military court of appeals and referred the cases back to the court of first instance

in Transitional justice in process
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

’, ‘resisters’, ‘militarists’ and ‘victims’; in each case women’s sex and gender was a defining factor in their experience of the conflict. Cock has argued that: ‘War is a gendering activity … thus changing gender relations is one of the essential tasks for reducing the risks of war in the future.’ 17 Rape and sexual violence Rape and sexual violence in times of

in The boundaries of international law
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

prisoners fails to address the way in which sexual violence is a major component of torture of women prisoners. 161 The Women’s Convention may receive cursory attention in sections on human rights in international law texts or in collections of ‘basic’ texts, but other treaties relating to women are rarely mentioned. Feminist writings are sometimes adverted to briefly in more

in The boundaries of international law
Abstract only
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

the methods of investigating and documenting human rights abuses can often obscure, or even conceal, abuses against women. Thus the UN’s ‘fact finding’ in Rwanda in 1994 did not detect systematic sexual violence against women until nine months after the genocide, when women began to give birth in unprecedented numbers. 129 In 1994, the UN Commission on Human Rights appointed the

in The boundaries of international law
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

role in the social hierarchy make women susceptible to sex-related crimes. 70 Women in particular positions of powerlessness, such as refugees, migrant workers and girl children, are especially vulnerable to sexual violence. 71 Second, a woman’s familial relationship to a man or to a group of men makes her vulnerable to types of violence that are ‘animated by society’s concept of a woman as the

in The boundaries of international law
Abstract only
Mariam Salehi

disappearance of the chapter on women and sexual violence, as well as the retrospective changes made after the report had been submitted. Whereas the former changes have the potential to deny victims justice, the latter would undermine the legitimacy of the report. With regard to reparations, my interview partners are pessimistic that the victims will receive what they have been promised: “They will probably not see a single dinar.”  14 Although the issue is still seen as crucial and a commission for administering the Dignity

in Transitional justice in process
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

. 130 Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath (New York, Human Rights Watch, 1996) at 24–6. 131 The Secretary-General has outlined a number of ways in which the participation of women served as a catalyst for changed attitudes and initiatives in Report of the

in The boundaries of international law
Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.