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Jasmine-Kim Westendorf

demands of living in peace. This, unsurprisingly, also contributes to the increased rates of violence against women, especially gang rape, which is common in post-war societies. 101 The breakdown of traditional social norms and sanction regimes, according to Michelle Barron, also means that acts of sexual violence that would have previously been punished no longer provoke strong social reactions. 102

in Violence and the state
The ICTY, ICTR and ICC
Matt Killingsworth

ever individual conviction for the crime of genocide (Jean Paul Akayesu), the first ever conviction of a former head of state for the crime of genocide (former Prime Minister of the Interim Government in Rwanda, Jean Kambanda), and the first judiciary to recognise rape and sexual violence as crimes of genocide. 46 The Tribunals have succeeded in restoring dignity to victims who

in Violence and the state
Abstract only
The growth of terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria, 1999–2016
Jennifer Giroux and Michael Nwankpa

estimates claiming over 2,000) and carried out acts of sexual violence. 41 In a similar situation just north of the Niger Delta region, the army killed over 100 civilians in Zaki Biam, Benue state, in 2001. This was yet another act of retaliatory justice – this time in response to the murder of nineteen soldiers by the Tiv ethnic militia group. In response, Human Rights Watch released the following statement: ‘The security forces have a duty to protect, not to attack, the population. The murder of the 19 soldiers should certainly be condemned, but their deaths do not

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Gendered legacies and feminist futures in the Asia-Pacific
Katrina Lee-Koo

Treaty (which sees the establishment of US military bases in Okinawa) is actually a source of in security for many local Japanese women. They argue that the cases of sexualized violence perpetrated by visiting US soldiers and the proliferation of the prostitution industry create a different experience of security than that anticipated under the Treaty ( Enloe, 2004

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Michelle Bentley

itself a core aspect of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) (Trahan, 2015 : 50), the systemic nature of the sexual violence that been used in torture and detention is emblematic of the extent of the Syrian conflict (HRW, 2012b ; Legagnoux, 2014 ). They took me to an interrogation room in the

in Syria and the chemical weapons taboo
Abstract only
Women and the narrative of extremist violence in Pakistan
Afiya Shehrbano Zia

, pp. 177–178) After the passage of UNSCR 1325, further Security Council resolutions followed, all demonstrating a particular preoccupation with sexual violence. However, such violations (on either the part of the militants or the army) were not an overwhelming concern for Pakistani activists. Ní Aoláin argues that the pattern of selective entreaty in multiple Security Council resolutions, as well as the language of 2242 essentializing women as either wicked purveyors of extremist violence or virtuous saviours of sons, husbands and communities

in Encountering extremism
Abstract only
Jo Laycock and Francesca Piana

, more than a million Armenians were systematically exterminated by the Ottoman authorities against the backdrop of the First World War and Ottoman and Russian imperial collapse. 8 Against the odds Mardiganian survived this ordeal and fled through Russia to the USA. After her arrival in America, Mardiganian’s story was turned into a ‘memoir’, Ravished Armenia . The young woman later starred in a fundraising film based on her experiences, Auction of Souls . The film recounted the experiences of Aurora Mardiganian in graphic detail, emphasising themes of sexual

in Aid to Armenia
The challenges of compassion and the Australian humanitarian campaigns for Armenian relief, 1900–30
Joy Damousi

form of campaigning that aimed to expose the world to the experience of Armenian refugees was the screening of The Auction of Souls , which included an Armenian young woman herself, Aurora Mardiganian, who took the lead part in the film representing her own life. While the Golden Rule movement encouraged identification with Armenian refugees in general, a focus on one Armenian woman who endured sexual violence and torture served as an emblem of Armenian suffering. 37 The film was shown in Sydney, at the Town Hall, in January 1920 for a fortnight to crowded

in Aid to Armenia
Michelle Bentley

against humanity of murder and of torture, war crimes and gross violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law, including unlawful killing, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, sexual violence, indiscriminate attacks, pillaging and destruction of property. (In Blake and Mahmud, 2013 : 247–8) At the time of

in Syria and the chemical weapons taboo