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Alison I. Beach
Shannon M.T. Li
, and
Samuel S. Sutherland

establish or maintain control over the churches and monasteries in their territories, and the advocates of reform, who were determined to free the Church from them, crystalized around the symbolic process of investiture, and conflict and even violence ensued. Further, the drive of eleventh-century Church reformers to sharpen the distinction between the clerical and lay spheres, rooted in concerns about the pollution of the Church through clerical sexuality and simony, was mirrored in the calls of the Hirsau reformers for full separation from the secular world, as seen in

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany