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Open Access (free)
Duncan Sayer

expectations and expressions of gender identity (Reay, 1998 ). Modern Australian, Welsh, Scottish, Irish, English or American societies all have subtly, and not so subtly, different approaches to the body, family, marriage, childbirth, social class, gender and age or education, based on wider cultural contexts like history, religion or law. Most importantly there is not in fact a single approach to these ideas in any of the places described. Indeed, your own attitude to family, for example, might depend on your past, your background and, importantly, the regional or class

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
Open Access (free)
Duncan Sayer

from the same cultural and chronological contexts. In short, to understand the social dimensions of mortuary expression we need to explore difference in terms of ‘social class’, attitude and aesthetics, and not via two-dimensional entities like social status based on wealth. Today, attitudes dictated by background or family might influence someone’s attitudes, determining things like the age when you have children and how to approach books, marriage, student loans, family history or social obligations. For example, the middle classes might move for work, whereas

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
Abstract only
Katherine Fennelly

the early nineteenth century, is telling of the social class to which most belonged. Given their manner of writing about the keepers and nurses, the physicians and commentators who wrote about their duties saw themselves in a higher social class. Among the instructions for the behaviour of keepers and nurses was advice on their manners, the use of appropriate (and inappropriate) language around the patients, and the importance of abstinence from smoking at work (Conolly 1847 : 114; Jacob 1833 : 62). In his treatise on public asylums in the 1830s (informed heavily

in An archaeology of lunacy
Abstract only
Rick Peterson

concrete physical things. Relationships between people are mediated through objects and architecture. For example, one of the ways in which he analysed the differences in social norms between different classes in France was to look at the unspoken practices around social dining (Bourdieu 1984, 193–200). To do this, he examined the contrasting expectations of each class for how people would speak and behave, what they would wear, the kind of food that would be prepared and how it would be presented. In essence, the habitus of social class was presented as something that

in Neolithic cave burials
The politics of co-collecting
Sean Mallon

the fore a diverse range 287 288 Pacific of experiences in terms of age, gender and social class, allow us to be more inclusive and to acquire the work of people and groups outside the often over-represented social and cultural elites (who admittedly have the most interactions with museums). Co-collecting challenges and reconfigures our role as Indigenous curators of collections. In a museum where we are at such close physical, cultural and digital proximity to our communities, it is difficult (and in our case not culturally desirable) to be a curator of the

in Curatopia
Abstract only
Victoria L. McAlister

. This was not simple social emulation by the new social classes created by economic opportunity, but rather a more complex phenomenon. Several scholars have argued against a theory of social emulation in the Middle Ages, among them Gardiner (Gardiner, 2000 ; Rees Jones, 2008 ). Regarding England, Gardiner states against the theory of social emulation that: Pearson has noted that in Kent the wealthy yeomen were in the vanguard of innovation in the early 16th century. They were able to be more innovative in

in The Irish tower house
Catherine J. Frieman

economic frameworks: the old nobility, the peasant, the independent artisan, and more widely the social and support networks provided by the village and the craft guild. The gospel of disruption tends to limit itself to talking about the destruction of businesses, rather than of individuals or social classes, but there is no question that, in its recent application to the arena of education (Christensen and Eyring 2011 ; Christensen et al . 2011 ), it is aiming to undermine the social and humanist elements of traditional pedagogy by removing educators from classrooms

in An archaeology of innovation
Civil war to prosperity
Roger Forshaw

Adoption Stela as well as on the Mit Rahina stela. The Crown also rewarded and honoured officials and private individuals by bestowing plots of land. Smallholdings of one to ten arourae114 were granted to individuals of middle social class status such as soldiers, scribes and priests. Similarly, land donations were granted by the temples to individuals, but equally individuals handed over large tracts of land to the temple. This seemed to be intended not only to be an act of piety but also to help strengthen the individual’s relationship with the temples and ultimately

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

it appeared. Norman W. Brown thought that his own present was in a state of sickness on account of civilisation, money, urbanisation, and capitalism (Brown 1959 : 234ff). Claude Lévi-Strauss took the view that modern society creates social classes and human exploitation (Lévi-Strauss 1966 : 121f). Fred Davis described modern society as characterised by discontinuity and problems (Davis 1979 : 97ff). Donald Horne took the view that modernity had caused a crisis (Horne 1984 : 21ff). Andreas Huyssen criticised the media and described his present as chaotic

in Heritopia
Duncan Sayer

a performance meant for just a few members of a subgroup of funerary participants, united with a shared memory and a shared connection to the deceased. Equally, the weapons located in the Apple Down and Orpington graves were part of an aesthetic combination appealing to the participants because they epitomised the qualities of a shared social class. Even at these two sites, spears had multiple meanings, appearing both in weapon combinations and singly within the graves of different people buried in separate areas of the cemeteries. In doing social archaeology

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries