Social class, the left-behind, migration and the history of underclass occupations as exemplified by the demographics, including ethnicity, of car wash attendants. Mobilities, the cocooning effect of the car cockpit and the discombobulation of temporarily evacuated drivers bringing their car for valeting at car wash enterprises. Employment structures and practices of car washes and the economics of the geographical distribution of car wash enterprises within urban landscapes. Semaphore, sign and cross-languaging in bottom-rung car wash businesses. Aspiration, rags-to-riches myths and film fantasies connecting British car wash work with the American Dream. The interrelated economic histories of car wash employment and taxi driving.
As the tragedy of the Grenfell Tower fire of 14 June 2017 has slowly revealed a shadowy background of outsourcing and deregulation, and a council turning a blind eye to health and safety concerns, many questions need answers. Stuart Hodkinson has those answers. Safe as Houses weaves together Stuart’s research over the last decade with residents’ groups in council regeneration projects across London to provide the first comprehensive account of how Grenfell happened and how it could easily have happened in multiple locations across the country. It draws on examples of unsafe housing either refurbished or built by private companies under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) to show both the terrible human consequences of outsourcing and deregulation and how the PFI has enabled developers, banks and investors to profiteer from highly lucrative, taxpayer-funded contracts. The book also provides shocking testimonies of how councils and other public bodies have continuously sided with their private partners, doing everything in their power to ignore, deflect and even silence those who speak out. The book concludes that the only way to end the era of unsafe regeneration and housing provision is to end the disastrous regime of self-regulation. This means strengthening safety laws, creating new enforcement agencies independent of government and industry, and replacing PFI and similar models of outsourcing with a new model of public housing that treats the provision of shelter as ‘a social service’ democratically accountable to its residents.
, R. ( 2010 ). Democratic smog? An empirical study on the correlation between social class and environmental pollution [Demokratischer Smog? Eine empirische Untersuchung zum Zusammenhang zwischen Sozialschicht und Umweltbelastungen] . Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie , 62 ( 3 ), 437 – 457
that echo repetition. The compound hosts the same type of families, of the same social class and nationality – ‘we're all, curiously, from the West Country’ (Ballard, 2006a : 474) – with the same entertainment activities. They are presented as clones in ‘huge self-contained holiday complexes’ (Ballard, 2006a : 476). This is strengthened through expressions that dilute any features of individualisation and difference – ‘a crowd of bewildered people’, ‘hordes of people’ (Ballard, 2006a : 475), and multiply normative behaviour exponentially, for example: ‘Everywhere
. While one aspect of the European model of city centre living might involve a mix of social classes living in close proximity to affordable shopping districts, the model that predominated in Ireland focused on exclusive upmarket living, primarily orientated towards the attraction of young middle-class workers. The notion of higher densities was itself usurped by an obsessive desire for taller buildings, often proposed in historically sensitive areas such as the Liberties in Dublin. Those that were built stand as reminders of a time now all but vanished. The monumental
lockdown, this trend was not equal across social classes (Recchi et al., 2020 ). Indeed, empirical findings showed that the pandemic has exacerbated health disparities as individuals reporting lower levels of well-being were consistently those belonging to the working class and the most financially vulnerable, people living alone and in smaller homes, those who were not born in
-environmentalism. Second, extent of access is of integral importance to any consideration of CMC use, as with minimal access not only is its use restricted but its influence upon others is curtailed. There has been a general push within British society to increase access to CMC (Wills 1999). This has included the increase of public access points at libraries and cafés, and provision at schools, colleges and places of work. There remain, however, stark differences in access determined by locality, age, income, gender and social class Introduction 13 (Jordan 1999a; Walch 1999). Access
-year period from 1986 to 2006 (Lunn, Fahey and Hannan, 2010). Research has consistently found that lone parents are more likely to be from lower social classes than other parents (Lunn, Fahey and Hannan, 2010). According to European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC) data (CSO, 2009), they experience the highest at risk of poverty (35.5 per cent), deprivation (63 per cent), and consistent poverty (17 per cent) rates of any household type. These EU SILC trend data suggest that the fortunes of lone-parent families in Ireland improved over the boom
resource distributed unevenly and in interconnected ways, playing a crucial role in the differentiation of global society (Cresswell 2010 ). Social class, constituted in economic, cultural and social capital, including wealth and educational qualifications, is important in facilitating the itinerant lifestyle that the expatriate narrates (Fechter 2007 ; Leonard 2010abc ). More decisive still, citizenship has become the key ‘resource for mobility’ today (Shachar 2009 ), and in particular European and North American citizenships represent ‘a crucial form of
contain 24 entries related to social class, including essays on class warfare and class consciousness and development of a consistent anti-capitalist position (for example, Dewey 1929/2008 b). Mentions of women are in the middle in frequency, at nineteen, and are less well developed theoretically. References Alcoff , L.M. ( 2006 ) Race, gender and the self . Oxford : Oxford University Press . Alcoff , L.M. ( 2007 ) Epistemologies of ignorance: Three types , in S. Sullivan and N. Tuana , eds, Race and epistemologies of ignorance . Albany, NY