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Britain and Australia 1900 to the present
Author: Neville Kirk

Explanations of working-class politics in Australia and Britain have traditionally been heavily rooted in domestic 'bread and butter', socio-economic factors, including the much-debated issue of social class. 'Traditional' and 'revisionist' accounts have greatly advanced our knowledge and understanding of labour movements in general and labour politics in particular. This book offers a pathbreaking comparative and trans-national study of the neglected influences of nation, empire and race. The study is about the development and electoral fortunes of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the British Labour Party (BLP) from their formative years of the 1900s to the elections of 2010. Based upon extensive primary and secondary source-based research in Britain and Australia over several years, the book makes a new and original contribution to the fields of labour, imperial and 'British world' history. It offers the challenging conclusion that the forces of nation, empire and race exerted much greater influence upon Labour politics in both countries than suggested by 'traditionalists' and 'revisionists' alike. Labour sought a more democratic, open and just society, but, unlike the ALP, it was not a serious contender for political and social power. In both countries, the importance attached to the politics of loyalism is partly related to questions of place and space. In both Australia and Britain the essential strength of the emergent Labour parties was rooted in the trade unions. The book also presents three core arguments concerning the influences of nation, empire, race and class upon Labour's electoral performance.

White women and colonialism in Barbados and North Carolina, 1627–1865
Author: Cecily Jones

Whiteness, as a lived experience, is both gendered and racialised. This book seeks to understand the overlapping imbrication of whiteness in shaping the diverse material realities of women of European origin. The analysis pertains to the English-speaking slave-based societies of the Caribbean island of Barbados, and North Carolina in the American South. The book represents a comparative analysis of the complex interweaving of race, gender, social class and sexuality in defining the contours of white women's lives during the era of slavery. Despite their gendered subordination, their social location within the dominant white group afforded all white women a range of privileges, shaping these women's social identities and material realities. Conscious of the imperative to secure the racial loyalty of poor whites in order to assure its own security in the event of black uprisings, elite society attempted to harness the physical resources of the poor whites. The alienation of married women from property rights was rooted in and reinforced by the prevailing ideology of female economic dependence on men. White Barbadian women's proprietary rights as slave-owners were upheld in the law courts, even the poorest slaveholding white women could take recourse to the law to protect their property. White women's access to property was determined primarily by their marital status. The book reveals the strategies deployed by elite and poor white women in these societies to resist their gendered subordination, challenge the constraints that restricted their lives to the private domestic sphere, secure independent livelihoods and create meaningful existences.

Social rank, imperial identity, and South Asians in Britain 1858–1914

This book focuses on the role of class in the encounter between South Asians and British institutions in the United Kingdom at the height of British imperialism. The leaders of Britain's cricketing institutions recognised the validity of ranks in an Indian social hierarchy which they attempted to translate into British equivalents. Achievement of Kumar Shri Ranjitsinjhi, one of the greatest cricketers of all time was truly an imperial one, combining the cultures and societies of India and Britain to propel him to a prominence that he would not otherwise have attained. The most important government institution to interact with Indians in Britain was the India Office. The National Indian Association was the most popular forum for interaction among Indians in Britain and Britons interested in India. The London City Mission and the Strangers' Home for Asiatics were the prominent inner-city missions to reach out to Indians in London. The book explores the extent to which British institutions treated Indians as British subjects, sharing a common legal and imperial identity with the inhabitants of the British Isles. It identifies patterns of compassion among Britain's elite when interacting with needy Indians in the United Kingdom, and establishes the central role of education in the civilising mission, particularly through scholarships to study in Britain. The book focuses on the ambiguous responses of British institutions to Indian students in the United Kingdom, ranging from accommodation of Indian culture to acquiescence in British bigotry.

Abstract only
Thomas Linehan

The usual caveats need to be dispensed before we consider the membership strength of Britain’s interwar fascist parties, and other areas of related interest such as the social-class and occupational profiles of fascist ‘joiners’. The main problem concerns the paucity of documentary evidence and other forms of contemporary written material relating to these matters. To compound the issue of scarcity, there are often marked variations in the quality of the information emanating from the sources that do exist. Reliable material on the membership in the official

in British Fascism 1918-39
Food and clothing
Carey Fleiner

, despite what Hollywood set-dressing might imply, the Romans didn’t shop for goods in the New World or Australia. The second part of the chapter provides you with a sketch of fashion and clothing in the Roman Empire across the different social classes, covering basic wardrobe choices, fabrics, colours, and accessories (including hair, cosmetics, and jewellery). As always, the discussion here isn’t meant to restrict or dictate your choices for your characters, but rather to provide general themes to consider when creating your fictional Rome

in A writer’s guide to Ancient Rome
Open Access (free)
The racecourse and racecourse life
Mike Huggins

5 Racing culture: the racecourse and racecourse life hile people could not avoid having views on racing only a minority actually attended race-meetings, and it is to the cultural and social life of the racegoing public that we now turn. The anticipatory thrill of travel was important, and a first section deals briefly with changes in travel over the period. A following more substantial section deals with social relationships, behaviour and attendance in relation to social class and gender. Changes and continuities in the comfort and facilities of the course, and

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
A case study of children’s homes in Ireland and the UK
Sarah-Anne Buckley and Lorraine Grimes

After a brief introduction to the systems, the existing historiography, and the foundations of the institutions, a central focus will be placed on the importance of social class, the culture of the homes, and the treatment of children and mothers by authorities. Sources are drawn from two larger projects – the Tuam Oral History Project and examination of a PhD thesis dealing with migration and assistance given to Irish women in UK institutions – but the Commission's recent report will also be referred to where applicable. 5

in Legacies of the Magdalen Laundries
Ida Milne

either influenza or pneumonia. This total represented less than 1 per cent of the total recorded female deaths from influenza, a statistically insignificant rate when compared to the equivalent Scottish rate of 2.9 per cent of the total.29 Death by social class and occupation The weekly returns of the RG for the Dublin registration area provide insights into the burden each class and class sector suffered. Figure 9 draws on these weekly reports to give deaths by social class or occupation in the Dublin registration area during the period covering the peak three waves

in Stacking the coffins
Open Access (free)
Mike Huggins

sport which had real support among all social classes’, and because its internationals ‘held more significance’.4 McKibbin’s treatment of social classes and cultures is usually subtle and persuasive. Here his analysis is less sure. It ignores the many racegoers drawn to racing by a passion and appreciation for those highly-strung equine aristocrats, thoroughbred horses, those enjoying the races but not the betting, and those going for social reasons, the enthusiastic fans and racing addicts drawn from all classes which cultural anthropologists have shown are still

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
British military nursing in the Crimean War
Carol Helmstadter

different construction of women’s role in a society that was becoming increasingly defined by social class. I look first at the way disease was understood and treated and what that meant for what nurses had to know. I then consider two barriers that prevented 24 Class, gender and professional expertise the public from grasping that efficient nursing required the kind of knowledge base which, at that time, could only be gained through clinical experience. The first barrier was the persistence of the image of nurses as working-class women who really were essentially

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953