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Ida Milne

either influenza or pneumonia. This total represented less than 1 per cent of the total recorded female deaths from influenza, a statistically insignificant rate when compared to the equivalent Scottish rate of 2.9 per cent of the total.29 Death by social class and occupation The weekly returns of the RG for the Dublin registration area provide insights into the burden each class and class sector suffered. Figure 9 draws on these weekly reports to give deaths by social class or occupation in the Dublin registration area during the period covering the peak three waves

in Stacking the coffins
British military nursing in the Crimean War
Carol Helmstadter

different construction of women’s role in a society that was becoming increasingly defined by social class. I look first at the way disease was understood and treated and what that meant for what nurses had to know. I then consider two barriers that prevented 24 Class, gender and professional expertise the public from grasping that efficient nursing required the kind of knowledge base which, at that time, could only be gained through clinical experience. The first barrier was the persistence of the image of nurses as working-class women who really were essentially

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Social networks and the spread of medical information
Alun Withey

, employers and employees, but also even bring together people of such disparate social classes as would normally preclude communications between them. These social networks are vital to our understanding of medical knowledge in Wales, since they explain how information was able to move both up and down the social scale, and also around the geographically intractable terrain of Wales, with apparent ease. Such networks crossed social and geographical boundaries and question previous depictions of Wales as being insular and remote. This chapter explores these networks and

in Physick and the family
The problem of tuberculosis and its threat to nurses’ health, 1880–1950
Debbie Palmer

commentators considered that the shortage was due to the decline in nursing’s ability to attract well-­educated, and hence almost inevitably, middle-­class recruits.21 Assumptions that nursing was losing ground to other middle-­class professions such as teaching and social work have been challenged by recent research suggesting that competition was coming from ‘low-­level white collar posts in the commercial sector – clerks, typists and shop assistants’.22 What was said about education, Brian Abel-­Smith argues, was really a polite way of making statements about social class

in Who cared for the carers?
Joanne Woiak

. However, considerably different policies for institutionalisation and drink control were implemented in each era, resulting in disparate impacts on people's lives, depending on their social class and gender. In the late nineteenth century, private medical retreats were licensed for voluntary treatment of affluent, male inebriates. 3 The disease concept of inebriety served the interests of both psychiatrists and those families who sought relief from the social stigma associated with alcoholism. After the turn of the

in Disability and the Victorians
Clement Masakure

colonial Zimbabwe, and the quality of healthcare differed according to race, social class and region. Infant mortality among white Zimbabweans was around 17 per thousand while in rural areas, where the majority of Africans lived, the rate was as high as 200–300 per thousand. 3 Differences also existed among Africans. Infants born in urban areas had better chances of living through childhood than rural infants. As Samuel T. Agere noted, for every 1,000 babies born in Mufakose, an African suburb in the capital of Harare, twenty-one died in the first year of their birth

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
John Welshman

professional and policy agendas while maintaining a clear focus on client needs. In the early post-war period, a range of hostels and centres were established in the United Kingdom for service-users including people with learning disabilities, clients of mental health services, so-called ‘problem families’ and vulnerable young adults. In these hostels and centres, the warden was the key member of staff. Their role has been seriously neglected in the literature, even though their experiences 191 Mental health nursing open up wider questions about social class, gender

in Mental health nursing
A history of the occupational health of nurses, 1880–1948
Author: Debbie Palmer

This book compares the histories of psychiatric and voluntary hospital nurses’ health from the rise of the professional nurse in 1880 to the advent of the National Health Service in 1948. In the process it reveals the ways national ideas about the organisation of nursing impacted on the lives of ordinary nurses. It explains why the management of nurses’ health changed over time and between places and sets these changes within a wider context of social, political and economic history. High rates of sickness absence in the nursing profession attract increasing criticism. Nurses took more days of sick in 2011 than private sector employees and most other groups of public sector workers. This book argues that the roots of today’s problems are embedded in the ways nurses were managed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It documents the nature of nurses’ health problems, the ways in which these problems were perceived and how government, nurse organisations, trade unions and hospitals responded. It offers insights not only into the history of women’s work but also the history of disease and the ways changing scientific knowledge shaped the management of nurses’ health. Its inclusion of male nurses and asylum nursing alongside female voluntary hospital nurses sheds new light on the key themes to preoccupy nurse historians today, particularly social class, gender and the issue of professionalisation.

Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.