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Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

have supported rhetoric of hordes, deluges, and waves that assumed disruption, chaos, and fear – and aggression, signified by the crowds of males. Refugees were an unexpected consequence of the war and had emerged as a ‘liminal figure who threatened social stability partly by virtue of the sheer number of displaced persons, but also because the refugee was difficult to accommodate within conventional classification such as assigned people to a specific social class’ ( Gatrell, 2014 ). Having fled violence or persecution, refugees were not the same as immigrants who

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Helen Thompson

too little importance to the power of states that politicians command and negates the crucial fact that politicians in representative democracies, as they have to compete for power through elections, have a distinct set of motives and purposes that cannot either be reduced to the interests or judgements of economic actors or social classes, or be explained as the outcome of ideas, institutional incentives or economic structures divorced from the realities of electoral competition. Since competition between and within parties is the means by which governments acquire

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Mariusz Korzeniowski

wish to d avoid its consequences. The forced migration involved all social classes of the Kingdom of Poland. Not only its mass character but also the diversity of those affected appeared to distinguish it from the migration of Poles during the nineteenth century. As Wasilewski put it: The conditions of this ‘eastern exile’ were very different from those familiar to us from western emigration after 1830. Emigration due to this war is greater in number, and affects all social classes, the common people in particular, while the previous migration to the west attracted

in Europe on the move
Michaël Amara

and social classes herded into refugee camps, lived off charity, or worked in war factories; their experience was very different to the Belgians who lived under the German occupation. During the first weeks of the war, Belgium was the scene of violent fighting. The constant inroads made by the French and British armies, the retreat of the Belgian army and the rapid advance of the Germans troops brought the war to even the most remote villages. In August 1914, battles that took place around Charleroi or Mons were particularly violent. Liège suffered the first aerial

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Claire Sutherland

creation of two German societies’ between 1945 and 1990, an observation which in itself chips away at the notion of ongoing national unity: ‘Ultimately, a common language, a common heritage, and a residual sense of common national identity, were fractured by deep-rooted and extensive differences in the very constitution of social classes, life chances, cultural attitudes and patterns of behaviour’ (Fulbrook 2001 , 245). At the

in Soldered states
Barry Cannon

descendants largely invisible’. 63 This ideology also ‘denied the existence of social classes’, and instead looked to a cultural homogenization, spread primarily through the educational system. 64 This policy of mestizaje and the denial of racism within Venezuela continued into the liberal democratic era, known as the Punto Fijo regime, installed definitively in 1958. With the economic crisis of the Punto Fijo regime, as outlined in the previous section, the vision of a united, non-racial and classless Venezuela lost its mythical power. Racist

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution
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Why queer(y) citizenship?
Zalfa Feghali

era. In ‘Citizenship and Social Class’, Marshall sees citizenship as ‘a direct sense of community membership based on loyalty to a civilization which is a common possession’.36 Here, Marshall presents a causal relationship between membership in a community, 10 Crossing borders and queering citizenship civilization, and citizenship. This concept of citizenship is also contingent on a certain understanding of the modern nation state, which ‘encompasses the notions of the people as a nation, the sovereignty of these people as a nation, and the state as the sum total

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship
Kirsten Haack

democrat’ became associated with specific political groups and social classes, and generally with liberalism. To maintain democracy’s relevance even for modern, large-scale societies, the focus on direct democracy gave way to representative forms. At the same time, through increased emphasis on the democratic principle of elections and by disconnecting its meaning from a form of polity alone, democracy was made compatible with monarchy. It is only in the twentieth century that democracy became the kind of system that is today generally associated with a democratic state

in The United Nations democracy agenda
Zalfa Feghali

tracing the literary descent of Dorothy Allison, David Reynolds suggests that Allison forces her reader to ‘confront white trash as realistic human characters, possessing both positive and negative attributes’.26 Unlike her literary ancestors, including James Agee and Erskine Caldwell and even extending to Hunter S. Thompson and Nelson Algren, whose stereotypical and often romanticised depictions of white trash communities continue to shape contemporary understanding of the term, Allison humanises her characters so that her readers recognise ‘persons of [that] social

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship
Sagarika Dutt

, states are not the only important actors in international relations; social classes are also very significant. Patterns of interaction and domination are determined by the location of states and classes within the structure of the capitalist world economy. Although Marx’s conception of capitalism is useful in some respects, Lenin’s ideas are more relevant to our discussion. Lenin argued that imperialism had created a two-tier structure within the world economy with a dominant core exploiting a lessdeveloped periphery. This chapter will attempt to ascertain to what

in India in a globalized world