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Treatises on farting
Guilhem Armand

century and the early nineteenth century, this text rapidly became a classic of comic, scatological and pseudo-medical literature, whose most stimulating or crudest passages were sometimes read in salons after dinner, a form of society laughter and libertinage fairly typical of the age.11 By contrast, my hypothesis is that these burlesque eighteenth-­ century works are part of the tradition of light provocative writing in the vein of Rabelais, but that they also partake of, and have a special relationship with, the Enlightenment; that they express, beyond a simple

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Judith Farquhar

the early 1980s, the modern field of Chinese medicine in China was aggressively and creatively reconstituting itself as both modern and ancient, at once scientific, clinically effective, and cultivated in a special relationship to the nation’s deep written heritage and archive of clinical experience.10 Many different positions on what Chinese medicine had been – in the Warring States period, during the late Han or Qing Dynasties, in the hands of barefoot doctors, in the paddies and forests of the folk – were being developed, both by traditionalists and modernizers

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine
Welfare, identity and Scottish prisoners-of-war in England, 1650–55
Chris R. Langley

wrath and chastisement. The Covenanting revolution of the 1640s created unprecedented space for political debate in Scotland.4 Scottish political and religious leaders maintained this trend by responding to Cromwell’s invasion in a similarly public way. Scottish clerics rethought their understandings of providence by concluding that the English Commonwealth’s victory at Dunbar was part of 211 The hidden human costs God’s design to chasten the ungrateful, yet nevertheless chosen, people of Scotland.5 The special relationship forged between England and Scotland in the

in Battle-scarred
Vaccine scares, statesmanship and the media
Andrea Stöckl
Anna Smajdor

‘war on terror’. As Steven Philip Kramer put it, Blair seemed to succeed in his strategy until the invasion of Afghanistan alienated his European allies and changed the perception that the UK would act as a diplomatic bridge between Europe and the United States. As political analysts point out, the British willingness to participate in the military invasion was not an inevitable consequence of the so-called ‘special relationship’ between Great

in The politics of vaccination
Abstract only
Noses on sale
Emily Cock

brought two living individuals into a special relationship. For Hester Pulter, the possibilities of this gift to produce a relationship between herself and William Davenant, and create a new sense of political influence for herself, represented a unique rhetorical means of accessing political culture and influence otherwise precluded to her as a Royalist woman located outside the centre of power in London. Her poem, while ultimately probably only of benefit to herself, provides a uniquely creative response to the issues of bodily autonomy and status raised by the

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture
Stephen T. Casper

was damaging – a fact later reflected in meetings of the committee and the actions it and the ABN took to counteract it in the 1950s. The council of the ABN during the early 1950s was not particularly adept at handling the apparent political crisis. Two years after the National Health Service had been established, a critical investigation carried out by the Ministry of Health explored how the consultant medical service could be expanded throughout Britain.117 The investigation ultimately placed neurology and cardiology’s special relationship to general medicine into

in The neurologists
Coreen Anne McGuire

telephones designed for users with hearing loss. Moreover, the work that the Post Office did for the government during the First World War signalled the start of an increasingly collaborative relationship between the state and the Post Office. This ‘special relationship’, as it was often referred to by the Post Office during the interwar years, was integral to motivating the Post Office’s development of its amplified telephone service for the deaf. Thus, the technology used in amplified telephone equipment developed very much in tandem with the technology used in trench

in Measuring difference, numbering normal