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Sonja Tiernan

Constance had died on 15 July 1927; she instantly returned to Dublin for the funeral. Constance had outlived her sister by only one year. A Catholic bible was found by her bedside, it was inscribed in her own hand ‘to Mother and Eva 1927 – They are not dead, they do not sleep. They have awakened from the dream of life.’19 After Markievicz’s funeral, Esther returned to London and began arranging a memorial in honour of Eva. She commissioned a stained glass window from Sarah Purser’s workshop in Dublin, An Túr Gloine (the tower of glass). This seemed most appropriate as

in Eva Gore-Booth
Author: Zoë Thomas

Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.

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Thomas Tolley

upper nobility. Spectacular complexes involving a fusion of the arts (architecture, sculpture, painting and stained glass) – such as Edward III’s completion of St Stephen’s Chapel at Westminster (1350–63) or the Beauchamp tomb and chapel at St Mary’s, Warwick (1441–52) – evidently required resources far beyond the means of most landed families. The gentry, however, certainly

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
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Thinking with saints
Gareth Atkins

‘saints’: sculptures of Wycliffe, Calvin, Cartwright, Baxter, Howe and Whitefield in one aisle and Wesley, Watts, Owen, Hooker, Knox and Luther in the other.6 Still more expansive was the stained-­glass scheme masterminded by the first Principal, A. M. Fairbairn (1838–1912), and installed in the first decade of the twentieth century.7 The seventy men and women that comprised it broadcast an exuberantly ecumenical vision, pairing the prophet Amos with Plato and ranging from the New Testament, Latin and Greek Churches through the medieval and Reformation periods (both

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain
Cheshire on the eve of civil war
Authors: Richard Cust and Peter Lake

This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.

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Writing American sexual histories
Author: Barry Reay

The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.

Zoë Thomas

1930s. Across the capital, this network spread through the West End and into ‘artistic’ Kensington, Chelsea, and Hammersmith. Business owners included: Newman; M. V. Wheelhouse and Louise Jacobs at Pomona   151    W OMEN AR T W O RK E RS AN D T HE ART S AN D C R A FTS M OV EM ENT Toys toyshop; E. C. Woodward and Agnes Withers of the metalwork workshop Woodward and Withers; Pamela Colman Smith of the Green Sheaf Press, alongside many other owners of metal, stained-glass, bookbinding, needlework, leather, and weaving shops and workshops. Women also set up

in Women art workers and the Arts and Crafts movement
Living spirituality

Between 1598 and 1800, an estimated 3, 271 Catholic women left England to enter convents on the Continent. This study focuses more particularly upon those who became Benedictines in the seventeenth century, choosing exile in order to pursue their vocation for an enclosed life. Through the study of a wide variety of original manuscripts, including chronicles, death notices, clerical instructions, texts of spiritual guidance, but also the nuns’ own collections of notes, this book highlights the tensions between the contemplative ideal and the nuns’ personal experiences. Its first four chapters adopt a traditional historical approach to illustrate the tensions between theory and practice in the ideal of being dead to the world. They offer a prosopographical study of Benedictine convents in exile, and show how those houses were both cut-off and enclosed yet very much in touch with the religious and political developments at home. The next fur chapters propose a different point of entry into the history of nuns, with a study of emotions and the senses in the cloister, delving into the textual analysis of the nuns’ personal and communal documents to explore aspect of a lived spirituality, when the body, which so often hindered the spirit, at times enabled spiritual experience.

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Zoë Thomas

1932 work by Hugh de Poix titled Nunc est Sherryendum (‘Now is the time to drink sherry’), which still hangs at 6 Queen Square today (Figure 6.1). Designed to represent a stained-glass window, the work depicts the Brothers, in middle to old age, loitering in a close, companionable circle around Master Basil Oliver, festooned in his red cape. A Past-Master rests a supportive hand on his shoulder. Smoking pipes and swilling sherry, their expressions range from the jovial and the imperious to the suspicious. Some Brothers even gaze directly back at the viewer – the

in Women art workers and the Arts and Crafts movement
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Martha Vandrei

of recent heritage: Davies’s railways and collieries shaped the modern, industrial landscape of south Wales. But, inside St Llonio’s Church, one can find a past of much greater antiquity. The south aisle of St Llonio’s is dominated by three stained-­glass windows designed and commissioned by Elinor Powell in 1897 (figure 5). Powell was the daughter of a local landowner, and she placed the windows in memory of her mother and father. Each window depicts a scene from the early history of Christianity, but not, perhaps, ones familiar to the modern observer. The viewer

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain