48 State responsibility The main rules in the area of state responsibility are laid down in the draft articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (State Responsibility). The draft contains two types of rule: Codified rules of customary law: these rules create obligations for
13 1 State formation and state administration I n early modern Sweden, state servants and municipal servants were all referred to as betjänte. The root of this word is tjäna, to serve, which also appears in related words such as betjänt (footman) and, more importantly, tjänare (servant). In the seventeenth century, betjänte was used both of those who served a private master and of those who served the king. In the words of an etymological dictionary, ‘the semantic difference between these two types of servant was not pronounced at a time when holders of public
moved to Vegas in order to forget his past. Sunil turns out to be a central character in the book: he is the point of connection between the Lake Mead murders and the novel’s subplot, that is, Eskia’s attempt to kill Dr Singh for his past involvement in the activities of the death camp of Vlakplaas during Apartheid. These two different storylines intertwine in the five days Detective Salazar has to solve the case, during which we come to know Sunil’s and the twins’ past, their connection with manifestations of state
In 1929, US Secretary of State Henry Stimson decided that ‘gentlemen do not read each other’s mail’ and ordered the closure of the Cipher Bureau (which is now viewed as the ancestor of the NSA). 1101 However, in the context of the Second World War, the United States relied heavily on intelligence gathering. At present, intelligence services
This book sets out to help unlock an intriguing interdisciplinary puzzle relating to violence: ‘what is the relationship between the instrumental uses of violence, including its main forms, and the willingness of states to employ it?’ In providing a counterweight to the notion that political violence has irrevocably changed in a globalised world, Violence and the State provides an original and innovative way to understand political violence across a range of discipline areas.
Service to others was integral to medieval and early modern European culture. It played a prominent role in the Christian world view. People tend to think of state service as the typical male form of work. However, this notion does not do justice to the early history of states and their servants, and it obscures the role of women and gender entirely. Teasing out these entanglements, this book shows how early modern state formation was subsidized by ordinary people's work and how, the then changing relationship between state authorities and families shaped the understanding of work and gender. It introduces the people, the period, the urban environments and the state administration under consideration. The book then analyses the role of violence and hostility in state servants' working lives and the expectations of servants to behave in certain ways. It demonstrates the vital role of small-scale market relations and of cooperation and mutual help among women. The book also analyses the relationship among lower state servants' families, discussing how social control and contact were parts of daily life and how society was knit together through these many practices. It discusses why early modern state formation created more opportunities for men than for women, when another outcome seems equally possible. The history of state formation throws new light on how different forms of service for others were understood and gendered over time, while people's everyday activities elucidate the mechanisms by which states were formed.
This chapter explores the concept of the state, looking at various theories of the state and identifying its major characteristics and then how far real states measure up to these characteristics. Finally, it examines the issue of whether the state is still as fundamental a political institution as it has been over the past four centuries
MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 10/29/2013, SPi 6 Church and state The key to Ireland is the Church, its pontiffs, the Nuncio, MacRory and McQuaid and I think we should bother less about relations, good or bad, with the Government and more with relations with the Catholic Church. John Betjeman, 21 March 1943 Subsidiary function The exercise of collective responsibility to overcome material shortages infused political, economic and social debate during the Emergency. It also came to affect many aspects of everyday life: Irish people were not used to queuing, yet
The Welfare State 2 ➤ Definition of the term ‘Welfare State’ ➤ What is included as part of the Welfare State ➤ Basic principles of the Welfare State ➤ The future of the Welfare State This short chapter is designed to introduce the subject of the Welfare State as a complete concept before we discuss some of its individual elements – education, health and social security – in further chapters. The origins and principles of the Welfare State will be discussed and the changing attitude of the parties and their policy makers to it will be traced. DEFINITION There
One of the typical features of contemporary imperialism is the growing and indispensable importance of state support, particularly for big capital. Boron argues that ‘virtually all of the world’s largest corporations have experienced decisive support from government policies and trade barriers to make them viable’. 1 However, much contemporary writing tends