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Maria Ågren

13 1 State formation and state administration I n early modern Sweden, state servants and municipal servants were all referred to as betjänte. The root of this word is tjäna, to serve, which also appears in related words such as betjänt (footman) and, more importantly, tjänare (servant). In the seventeenth century, betjänte was used both of those who served a private master and of those who served the king. In the words of an etymological dictionary, ‘the semantic difference between these two types of servant was not pronounced at a time when holders of public

in The state as master
The Secret History of Las Vegas
Annalisa Oboe
Elisa Bordin

moved to Vegas in order to forget his past. Sunil turns out to be a central character in the book: he is the point of connection between the Lake Mead murders and the novel’s subplot, that is, Eskia’s attempt to kill Dr Singh for his past involvement in the activities of the death camp of Vlakplaas during Apartheid. These two different storylines intertwine in the five days Detective Salazar has to solve the case, during which we come to know Sunil’s and the twins’ past, their connection with manifestations of state

in Chris Abani
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Gender, state formation and commercialisation in urban Sweden, 1650– 1780

Service to others was integral to medieval and early modern European culture. It played a prominent role in the Christian world view. People tend to think of state service as the typical male form of work. However, this notion does not do justice to the early history of states and their servants, and it obscures the role of women and gender entirely. Teasing out these entanglements, this book shows how early modern state formation was subsidized by ordinary people's work and how, the then changing relationship between state authorities and families shaped the understanding of work and gender. It introduces the people, the period, the urban environments and the state administration under consideration. The book then analyses the role of violence and hostility in state servants' working lives and the expectations of servants to behave in certain ways. It demonstrates the vital role of small-scale market relations and of cooperation and mutual help among women. The book also analyses the relationship among lower state servants' families, discussing how social control and contact were parts of daily life and how society was knit together through these many practices. It discusses why early modern state formation created more opportunities for men than for women, when another outcome seems equally possible. The history of state formation throws new light on how different forms of service for others were understood and gendered over time, while people's everyday activities elucidate the mechanisms by which states were formed.

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Bryce Evans

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 10/29/2013, SPi 6 Church and state The key to Ireland is the Church, its pontiffs, the Nuncio, MacRory and McQuaid and I think we should bother less about relations, good or bad, with the Government and more with relations with the Catholic Church. John Betjeman, 21 March 1943 Subsidiary function The exercise of collective responsibility to overcome material shortages infused political, economic and social debate during the Emergency. It also came to affect many aspects of everyday life: Irish people were not used to queuing, yet

in Ireland during the Second World War
Jason Knirck

In September 1922, after over two months of civil war, the deaths of Collins and Griffith, and the creation of a Free State army to suppress former colleagues, Richard Mulcahy rose in the Dáil to propose W.T. Cosgrave as the first president of the Executive Council, in effect the prime minister of the new Free State. Despite the obvious fracture in Sinn Féin over the

in Democracy and dissent in the Irish Free State
Alan Marshall

Prior to the Civil Wars the secret intelligence activities of the English state had already begun to orientate themselves around the office of the secretary of state. In the English context at least, this office had emerged from a varied administrative background of royal courts and councils, closets and keepers of royal business secrets, becoming a secretary who, at first, mainly acted as the monarch’s own private servant. Throughout the seventeenth century this office was to retain some of these older

in Intelligence and espionage in the English Republic c. 1600–60
Sites and rites, 1642–60
J. F. Merritt

Chapter 3 . Westminster and the state: sites and rites, 1642–60 W estminster was traditionally viewed as a royal city, in contrast to the City of London. It was above all the location of the royal court and household, the privy council and of the royal law courts (and only rarely played host to the infrequent meetings of parliament). The flight of the king from Westminster in January 1642 was therefore a considerable shock to the locality. This would have been compounded when, following his failed attempt to take London in late 1642, Charles I moved his royal

in Westminster 1640–60
Paul Jackson

extreme right be confronted, challenged, or even eliminated? Moreover, can political and state interventions hinder as well as help in this process? To unpack these questions this chapter explores firstly how the British state has responded to the concerns of the extreme right. Sometimes state actions have obstructed activism, but at other times policies have, intentionally or

in Pride in prejudice
Open Access (free)
French clerical reformers and episcopal status
Alison Forrestal

chap 2 22/3/04 12:12 pm Page 50 2 The most perfect state: French clerical reformers and episcopal status As a general council of the church, Trent offered a framework within which a resurgent catholicism could take shape. To a man, its delegates took it for granted that the clergy would lead the laity, and that bishops would supervise and govern all the faithful. While the conciliar decrees were designed to respond, therefore, to the specific abuses and inadequacies of contemporary religion, they drew equally on what were assumed to be eternally applicable

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Abstract only
Daniel Laqua

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 07/18/2013, SPi 3 Church and state In the second half of the nineteenth century, Europe experienced intense antagonism between secular and ecclesiastical forces. In Germany, these conflicts peaked with the Kulturkampf of the 1870s; in Italy, they were exemplified by the ‘Rome question’ and the Papacy’s hostility towards the liberal state.1 In France, the legitimacy of the Third Republic was initially contested by an alliance of monarchists and Catholics. Spurred on by Cardinal Lavigerie in 1890, some French Catholics adopted a policy

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930