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Interpreting deposition in the bog
Melanie Giles

. Those that could ‘warm the road’ and keep these connections open may have earned not just social but supernatural renown (see Giles 2012 : 229–30). The vehicles that best embody such power come from Denmark. The Bronze Age Trondholm sun-chariot falls out of the main scope of our study but it is a bog find that suggests a deeper cosmological resonance for the wheeled vehicle. Randsborg and Christiensen ( 2006 ) argue that it represents a model of the cosmos in which the wagon or chariot was a vehicle of celestial movement, drawing the sun across the sky. It

in Bog bodies
Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

, at least in terms of its effect upon organic matter: giving the living a seemingly supernatural power that enhanced the post-mortem agency of the dead. 6.2 The Cladh Hallan male bog bod(ies) (a composite, made from three individuals, at least one of whom may have been interred temporarily in a local bog). All rights reserved and permission to use the figure must be obtained from the copyright holder. What about later periods? An early medieval burial at Jubilee Tower in Lancashire (dating to the seventh century AD) seems to follow contemporary burial rites

in Bog bodies
Fredrik Fahlander

petroglyphs, which due to their mediality can generate responses without any previous knowledge of Bronze Age visual culture. For instance, petroglyphs normally appear as vague lines and patterns in the rock. It does not matter if their origin is assumed to be natural, supernatural or human-made. The grooves in the rock can be evocative enough and when following the lines in the rock one can get fascinated or curious about where they might lead. When a line of a partial motif you follow unexpectedly stops, it would undoubtedly evoke a moment of surprise and curiosity, or

in Images in the making
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

may have been visible in silhouette, magnified against the horizon as they made their tricky journey across the bog. Such risk may have been necessary if total immersion in an almost inaccessible locale was part of a thanatological solution, disposing of either the ‘dangerous dead’ (achieving a proper and fitting end to this life, see Giles 2016 ) or to make offerings in a place where the supernatural realm could be met with (van der Sanden 1996 : 174). Eliade ( 1963 , cited in Bradley 2017 : 188) described such places as heirophanies – ‘places where the

in Bog bodies
Abstract only
A Tongan ‘akau in New England
Ivan Gaskell

martial objects, with associations of successful competitive performance and chiefliness. Metaphysically, they incrementally developed an exalted status through performative use in warfare, dance and the hegemonic self-presentation of chiefly males. Through their biographical association with the mana of humans and deities, their deposition in the pre-Christian temple and their use as the manifest conduits and vessels of supernatural entities they gained exalted status. This status was manifested in an ‘akau’s progressive acquisition of an aggressive supernatural

in Curatopia
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

peat, through a cultural and environmental ‘crossing’ of the bog landscape. It describes different kinds of peatlands and their peculiar and restricted ecology, evoking the changes in climate, precipitation and landscape management that characterised later prehistory. It will evidence the growth of bogs during this era, and consider how these communities might have navigated its quaking surface. The chapter will consider the risks they faced, not just physically but through the supernatural phenomenon that might have been thought to dwell there. Using historic

in Bog bodies
Open Access (free)
Manchester’s bog head
Melanie Giles

rounding up ‘all the things’ (i.e. the cattle) but shouting out that it had had trouble ‘with the little one’ – when the farmer went to inspect this supernatural corralling of the herd, he found a hare, bound tight, instead of a calf (H. 1867: 2)! In this strange tale we have the explicit relating of physical remains (the head/skull) to a supernatural being related to the moss (the boggart as helper) associated with a wild mammal often attributed some folkloric powers of its own (an association also noted with the Wardley skull). Clarke details the many oral histories of

in Bog bodies
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

. This chapter concerns the discovery of such remains – what people felt and why they were sometimes motivated, like the locals of Hope valley, to seek them out. The chapter traces transformations in attitudes towards bodies from the bog, from the earliest archival records to the recent past: examining how these bodies were reported and to whom, how the condition of such corpses was understood and how this shaped the fate of their remains. It charts the move from late medieval supernatural awe and folkloric fear to antiquarian curiosity; historic tensions in religious

in Bog bodies
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Tangible engagements in the making and ‘remaking’ of prehistoric rock art
Lara Bacelar Alves

-preserved oral tradition, which included tales about supernatural beings who shaped the land and inhabit particularly significant places in the landscape (Alves 2001: 76–7). In the late 1990s, during my first visits to rock art sites accompanied by local people, I found that carved rocks had their own place-name and legends telling the story of ‘enchanted mooresses’ who were believed to dwell inside the rocks, revealing themselves to humans on St John’s night (when festivities are related to the summer solstice) and to be very often responsible for carrying and placing large

in Images in the making