Though the French destroyed many temples during the first Indochinese war,
their restoration and revival during the 1990s has been sanctioned by the
authorities as a way of honouring ‘people’s heroes’, many
temples now enjoying enhanced status as official heritage sites
(Nguyễn et al. 2003 , 223).
Born of a human mother and the god of thunder,
Gióng’s life was shaped by a supernatural element reminiscent of
evil exists as a force or principle residing within specific human
beings, rather than in a complex set of structural conditions or as the
moral outcome of a chain of events (Rediehs 2002 :
66-7). The rhetorical strategy employed most often is one of
personification – creating a human version of supernatural evil,
or ‘evil incarnate’ (McDaniel 2003 ).
For example, in
’ (Numelin 1950 : 111). Drawing on Malinowski’s classical work on the Trobriands, he notes the practice of cleansing strangers of their taboo by having a village girl ‘act as the stranger’s partner for the night’ (Numelin 1950 : 113). Another widespread practice was the presentation of (other) gifts ( 1950 : 156). There is also the practice of the peace-invocating festival, such as the Mindarie-feasts of the Diery of Australia ( 1950 : 141). The general practice on display here is hospitality, offered not least out of fear of unknown supernatural powers.