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Claire Sutherland

). Though the French destroyed many temples during the first Indochinese war, their restoration and revival during the 1990s has been sanctioned by the authorities as a way of honouring ‘people’s heroes’, many temples now enjoying enhanced status as official heritage sites (Nguyễn et al. 2003 , 223). Born of a human mother and the god of thunder, Gióng’s life was shaped by a supernatural element reminiscent of

in Soldered states
Cerwyn Moore

in the 1990s.6 Epics – often written in what is called an ‘elevated style’ and captured in poetic verse – aim to retell the story or exploits of superhuman heroes. The heroes often represent a specific group, and capture the traits and wills of a particular community. The story itself refers to the journey through mysterious, fantastic or cosmic lands. During the journey the hero in the story often undertakes deeds. On occasion the hero is helped by Gods, or other supernatural beings, often in unforeseen ways. Yet, as one writer has noted when considering Serbian

in Contemporary violence
Zalfa Feghali

cheated on him with their guide, Wilson. By titling the novel in such a way that it simultaneously calls to at least two national and regional literary traditions, Caribbean writing and canonical US literature and historiography, Díaz primes readers for contingent, parallel, and simultaneous narratives and frames the novel as a hybrid yet originary text. Similarly, excavating the etymology of the name Oscar opens up multiple strands of interpretation, both of which imbue the name with elements of the supernatural and are consistent with Díaz’s allusive writing style

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship
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A relational approach
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

about masking ceremonies in Côte d’Ivoire, Sasha Newell describes the way in which men put on masks to ‘perform as supernatural beings (ancestors, forest spirits, deities) for women and children, who at least pretend not to know that the beings before them are their own husbands, fathers, and brothers, wearing costumes in order to deceive them’ (2013: 140). The audience and the wearers of the masks all enter into the idea that the theatre is real, that spirits have come among them. ‘Everyone acts as though the masks were real creatures, even though everyone knows it

in Images of Africa
Andrew Carnegie’s dreamworld
Duncan Bell

Matthew Arnold, in his pantheon of intellectual gods, routinely describing himself as a ‘disciple’ of the ‘master’.83 His belief in the inviolability of Spencer’s system underwrote what his friend John Morley, the liberal historian and politician, once referred to as Carnegie’s ‘invincible optimism’.84 Carnegie recalled that after reading Spencer (and Darwin) as a young man, ‘light came as in a flood and all was clear. Not only had I got rid of theology and the supernatural, but I had found the truth of evolution.’85 That Spencerian truth, at least as digested by

in American foreign policy
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Thinking about America in the world over the longer run
James Dunkerley

habitually embraced.38 Even Perry Anderson notes that:  ‘America would not be America without faith in the supernatural. But for obvious reasons this component of the national ideology is inner-​ directed, without much appeal abroad, and so now relegated to the lowest rung in the structure of imperial justification.’39 Finally, when reviewing these ideational ancestries and any allied path dependencies over 250 years, we do need to be mindful of what J. R. Pole rightly called the ‘inelegant’ term of ‘presentism’, which is not just teleology but also condescension.40 It is

in American foreign policy
Ayla Göl

directly the intended result of human intention, and therefore can be explained wholly in such terms. This is of course not the case at all.’93 It seems that Weber accepts the interdependence between leaders and the social conditions. Weber defines ‘charisma’ as follows: The term ‘charisma’ will be applied to certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart form ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These are Foreign policy and transitional states 15

in Turkey facing east
Casper Sylvest

international rules, while the traditional ­religious or unhistorical understandings of natural law had been supplanted by a similarly external agency in the form of progressive-evolutionary civilis­ ation. At the turn of the century, therefore, international lawyers could observe this almost Comtean progression of jurisprudence from the supernatural and metaphysical to the positive with complacency and expectation. By way of conclusion, this section offers some exploratory and provisional thoughts on the consequences these developments ­generated 88 Legal evolution and

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930