's mouth, or by somewhere in the Black Sea, since by that way he come’ ( 1897 : 340). Dracula came from the far reaches of the foreign east to ‘invade’ London and inspire unnatural behavior in young women. His supernatural ability to command the fog aided his flight back to his ancestral home in Transylvania – and only the intervention of the rational English protagonists with steamboats and railroads would finally stop the unnatural being from succeeding in his nefarious plans. Here, the foul fog and ‘noxious fumes’ repeatedly described in nineteenth-century accounts of
) or supernatural forces (God,
destiny, or karma). The charity model perceives people with disabilities
as victims who deserve pity. And the minority model emphasizes the
discrimination suffered by the disabled and deals with their struggle
for rights alongside other minority groups ( Retief and Letšosa, 2018 ).
In the MSF hospital we were able to understand the nuances
of all these models. Two main
modern, Protestant paradigm of religion as a matter of internal faith. Normative secularist writings espousing Western-style secularism as a political doctrine have, like those of early socialist-Labour Zionist thinkers, taken an anti-religious stance, including against supernatural belief. Still, neglect is not unique. For many cases within and outside the West, what a person believes in (God/s, Nature, Humanity, Science, etc.), what alternative, non-religious discourses of human flourishing, meaning-making and spirituality they participate in and how they address
When he collected the Nobel Prize for literature in 1922, the poet W.B. Yeats recalled a ‘moment of supernatural insight’ in the late nineteenth century when he became certain that ‘Ireland was to be like soft wax for years to come’. 1 The arrival of many cultural, political and social movements at this time highlighted how different people and groups expended significant energy as they devised various projects to modernise Ireland. As a primary participant in the Irish cultural revival, Yeats saw that an opportunity to wield cultural and
natural elements of human environment can, as the landed titles of aristocracy suggest, contribute one further dimension to human identity. The very seemingly prehuman source of the natural world makes it appropriate as a location and symbol of elements of human identity which lie beyond the immediately visible, tangible, or audible aspects of human bodies and human artefacts. Nature can be supernatural, but with a supernatural dimension that embellishes the identity of mortal humans. 117 Man may be made in the image of God, but the signs on earth of that divine
of them are foreigners, mostly Europeans, who settled in the Republic
because of their skewed image of Ireland, ultimately based on the
nationalist ideological construct of the first half of the twentieth century.
They saw Ireland as a premodern, pastoral country, a romantic land of
magic where ancient supernatural spirits had survived the maelstrom
of liberal and neo-liberal values, which had destroyed them elsewhere.
They expected that a country so full of liminal places would offer a more
authentic experience of a life close to nature and respectful of
Irish contemporary women’s fiction and the expression of desire in an era of plenty
which her protagonist Anna desperately wants to be the heroine of. Another strategy Ní
Dhuibhne has used is the introduction of supernatural or marvellous
elements in the story, which all resort to traditional Irish folklore; their
effect is not just to mock and contradict the bourgeois realist writers’
claim to verisimilitude but also to point at the irrational, the fantasized
and the imaginary parts of the characters’ and the readers’ unconscious
fears, desires and anxieties, which society, especially a materialistic,
profit-driven one, ignores and represses. Anne
Cuchulainn, is a legendary figure from Irish folklore renowned for his supernatural hurling skills. This nickname is highly complimentary and prestigious and it is not surprising that it was a source of pride for participants. For these young males, taking part in GAA events and on sports teams through school was an important gateway to inclusion in Irish society.
In contrast, no members of the 1.25- and 1.5-generation cohorts participated in GAA activities or other school-based sporting activities. A high level of skill in Gaelic football and
Conventions, reification, the sacred and essentialism
authority as linked to the person and to the sacred. For Weber, the prophet, exemplified by Moses, was the archetypal charismatic leader. The charismatic leader is someone who is extraordinary, who has superhuman and often supernatural qualities. Weber writes as follows.
The term charisma will be applied to a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is considered extraordinary and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These are such as are not accessible to the ordinary
Association and distinction in politics and religion
going to war. This was not a clue to the identity of the president, it was part of that identity.
Two bodies: the person and the personage
Religion is one human activity where the tensions of identification are most evident. The other is government and politics. The distance in religion between the human and the divine, supernatural, or metaphysical is paralleled in the secular world by the distance between the public identity and the biological person, what Kantorowicz has termed the political body and the natural body. 56 In