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African Caribbean women, belonging and the creation of Black British beauty spaces in Britain (c. 1948– 1990)
Mobeen Hussain

with colonial ideologies created a context in which consumers could purchase ‘racial capital’ through skin-bleaching creams (and later cosmetic surgeries). 54 Tate has argued that many African Caribbean women do not buy into ‘wanting to be white’ but a light-brown complexion is preferred, and that such products offer Black women a wider range of choices. 55 Yet, in the immediate

in British culture after empire
Appropriation, dehumanisation and the rule of colonial difference
Samraghni Bonnerjee

combatants, and surgeons like Harold Gillies pioneered facial repair surgeries. What happened to the Gurkha soldiers whose faces could have been blown apart as a result of the target practice? 53 MacGregor's letters offer no answer. In a letter to his mother dated 16 December 1918, MacGregor wrote: ‘The other day a list came round of officers desirous of serving abroad after the war – well – the thought of Coast defence at Fort Bovis and on one side of Indian Mnt. Artillery on the other was too strong

in Exiting war
Material culture approaches to exploring humanitarian exchanges
Amanda B. Moniz

. 17 The doctors examined patients, prescribed medicines, which were dispensed by the apothecary, and performed surgeries. For much of patients’ stays, though, they were convalescing. In addition, the charity periodically housed some destitute patients after they had recovered. The rules did not allow patients to stay beyond when they could benefit from medical care, but, as they did with John Johnson and Joseph, the

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995
Early medical encounters, c.1859–c.1930
Markku Hokkanen

in Malawi certainly did have affairs with local women, 61 such relationships were largely clouded in secrecy, and if any of these women or any household female servants were healers or spoke to European men about local medicines, no trace of such discussions has emerged. The public (and probably private) British gaze was gendered and saw medical men as key informants. Spectacle, surgery and secrecy

in Medicine, mobility and the empire
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa
Anna Greenwood
Harshad Topiwala

Surgeons, and by 1857, the year in which the institution was confirmed as having full university status, Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery (LMS), Bachelor in Medicine (MB) and Doctor of Medicine (MD) were all offered, in line with the medical degrees available in the UK. 21 The Western medical education established at Calcutta was soon copied elsewhere. Madras Medical College admitted its first students in

in Beyond the state
Matthew M. Heaton

vessel Apapa on 18 November 1956. The ship’s surgeon had examined Hughes and found him ‘quiet and reasonable’. 47 Nevertheless, six paid attendants, all of whom were government employees of Nigeria, accompanied him. 48 At 9:40am on November 26, A.H. stepped outside of the surgery quarters and headed towards the C deck of the ship, where, ‘seeming quite cheerful and quiet’, he enjoyed a smoke with a

in Beyond the state
Crucial collaboration, hidden conflicts
Markku Hokkanen

-effective: the mission concentrated on Blantyre and African patients, the Colonial Service on Zomba and government employees. Colonial medicine in Malawi focused more on men, particularly able-bodied government workers, soldiers and labourers. Missions treated more women, children, elderly patients (cataract operations were a particular strength of mission surgery in the early 1900s) and leprosy patients

in Beyond the state
Linley Sambourne, Punch, and imperial allegory
Robert Dingley
Richard Scully

hierarchy of female types based on physical proportions, with Venus (as represented in Greek sculpture) at the top and the ‘stereotypical’ African woman (who lacks classical contours) at the bottom. See (e.g.): Sander L. Gilman, Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery , Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999, pp. 221–223. Sambourne's decision to depict the African Venus as fulfilling Western standards of beauty is therefore a highly conscious one and it can be usefully contrasted with his depiction of Miss Niger in ‘Waking Up!’ ( Punch

in Comic empires
Medicine and the knowledge economy in Asia
Andrew Mackillop

and opportunities in London were broadly accessible to all metropolitan provincials, or at least those who professed Protestantism. Part of the answer to these divergent profiles lies in the fact that the Dublin medical institutions focused on surgery in ways that directed the flow of personnel towards the regular forces. It has been estimated that about 33 per cent of all British army surgeons by the early 1800s were Irish or trained in Ireland. 62 This pattern of specialisation demonstrates how educational and civic institutions in the metropolitan provinces

in Human capital and empire
Nicola Ginsburgh

. 6. 63 Schattil, ‘Franzen Commission’, p. 12. 64 ‘Nursing Staff Shortage Questionnaire’, RNN , 4:1 (July 1971), pp. 13–14; Law, Gendering the Settler State , p. 105. 65 ‘Editorial’, RNN , 4:1 (July 1971), p. 1. 66 ‘Nursing post’ included work in doctors and dentists surgeries, private nursing and as health visitors. 67 ‘Comments and Suggestions’, RNN , 4:1 (July 1971), p. 17. 68 Ibid. , p. 20. 69 ‘Employers Back Principle of Rate for the Job’, Rhodesia Herald , 15 May 1974, p. 10; Ken B. Crookes , ‘ Labour Problems in Rhodesia: An

in Class, work and whiteness