Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People and the hybrid pathways of Chinese
while evoking a familiar psychical world for their Chinese consumers. Taking the extensive history of thepills into account thus complicates the accepted narrative of advertising as the major driving force of urban modernity in Shanghai and offers a more nuanced account of the way hybridity – not only cultural, but also temporal – was strategically mobilised to articulate a distinctly Chinese vision of twentieth-century society.
Studies of advertising content in this historical
The Business of Birth Control uncovers the significance of contraceptives as
commodities in Britain before the Pill. Drawing on neglected promotional and
commercial material, the book demonstrates how hundreds of companies transformed
condoms and rubber and chemical pessaries into branded consumer goods that
became widely available via birth control clinics, chemists’ shops and vending
machines, and were discreetly advertised in various forms of print. With its
focus on the interwar period, the book demonstrates how contraceptive
commodification shaped sexual and birth control knowledge and practice at a time
when older, more restrictive moral values surrounding sexuality uncomfortably
co-existed with a modern vision of the future premised on stability wrought by
science, medicine and technology. Commodification was a contested process that
came into conflict with attempts by the State, doctors and the birth control
movement to medicalise birth control, and by social purity groups that sought to
censor the trade in order to uphold their prescribed standards of sexual
morality and maintain sexual ignorance among much of the population. Of wide
interest to modern historians, the book not only serves as an important reminder
that businesses were integral to shaping medical, economic, social and cultural
attitudes towards sex and birth control but also sheds greater light on the
ambiguities, tensions and struggles of interwar Britain more broadly. Without
such interwar struggles, the contraceptive Pill may not have received its
arrived in Madras, his pills were analysed by British surgeons and its ingredients
were listed. The focus shifted from the efficacy of thepills to its ingredients. William
Duffin and another surgeons reported to the Hospital Board, that although the repeated trials
were successful in curing snakebites, some of the ingredients raised questions, but in the
absence of any other remedy, they recommended the Government ‘to leave every
practitioner to administer remedies, as his own judgement may direct as heretofore in cases
, from Brazil to Madras. 5
Further incorporation of the commercial perspective into birth control history also has the potential to enhance our understanding of subsequent changes in contraceptive supply and birth control behaviour. Negotiations over contraceptive availability continued into the arguably more socially conservative era of the 1950s, but the contradictions of the interwar period were not resolved by the introduction of thePill in 1961 and its availability to the unmarried from 1968. Most historical studies of thePill have emphasised that its tablet
Women could thus find themselves pregnant, but incapable of physically coping with another pregnancy or unable to financially accommodate another child.
Tradition was broken for many couples marrying in the 1960s; family sizes were smaller, and Dorine Rohan, in her contemporary survey of Irish society, claimed that many people believed four children to be the ideal family size.
With the arrival of thepill, as we saw in Chapter 2 , many
Ensuring adolescent knowledge and access to healthcare in the age of Gillick
Hannah J. Elizabeth
was putting her under-age
daughters on thePill. 28
In an oft-quoted 1984 High Court statement in
explanation of his position, Woolf emphasised the agency of the child rather than the
parent, and began to define what would later be known as ‘Gillick competence’.
whether or not a child is capable of giving the necessary consent
will depend on the child’s maturity and understanding and the nature of the consent required. The child must be
, which first discussed thepill in June 1968, took the approach more common in Europe. An explainer, compiled by Dolores Rockett, the then advice columnist, focused on risks.
One of McEnroy's earliest pieces for Woman's Way pointed out that an unofficial two-tier healthcare system, built on a principle of geographical inequality, was developing in the country.
Some sympathetic doctors were willing to make thepill available
Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.
This book is a social history of northern soul. It examines the origins and development of this music scene, its clubs, publications and practices, by locating it in the shifting economic and social contexts of the English midlands and north in the 1970s. The popularity of northern soul emerged in a period when industrial working-class communities were beginning to be transformed by deindustrialisation and the rise of new political movements around the politics of race, gender and locality. The book makes a significant contribution to the historiography of youth culture, popular music and everyday life in post-war Britain. The authors draw on an expansive range of sources including magazines/fanzines, diaries, letters, and a comprehensive oral history project to produce a detailed, analytical and empathetic reading of an aspect of working-class culture that was created and consumed by thousands of young men and women in the 1970s. A range of voices appear throughout the book to highlight the complexity of the role of class, race and gender, locality and how such identities acted as forces for both unity and fragmentation on the dance floors of iconic clubs such as the Twisted Wheel (Manchester), the Torch (Stoke-on-Trent), the Catacombs (Wolverhampton) and the Casino (Wigan).
the nursing leadership did not alter this view. As Nzenza illustrated, ‘They all wanted to be the first to discover a pregnant student nurse. Pregnancy meant immediate dismissal. The matron even went to the extent of going to the nearest Family Planning Centre to find out which student nurse was registered on thepill.’ 48 It is possible that the yearly average of pregnancy among nursing students was high during the colonial period. Nursing students used various coping strategies to assert their independence. Interviews suggested the prevalence of sneaking out and