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Sam Rohdie

Time Tout le passé est nécessaire pour aimer le présent. (The entire past is necessary in order to love the present.) Annie Ernaux20 There is no single narrative to films by Bernardo Bertolucci, none that follows (or traces) a progressive, chronological line. For the most part, his films begin in a present already past or a past yet to be, but in dissolution, a future or a present becoming past, and becoming the past instantly, as each time is made apparent, and apparent at the same time. Each and every time contains other times, the multiplicities of time

in Film modernism
Jacqueline Furby

This essay deals with the temporality of film through an examination of narrative, structure and image in Sam Mendes’ film American Beauty (2000), referring to both Gilles Deleuze and Henri Bergson‘s work on time. I argue that the repetition of formal elements (images, settings, colours, shapes, and textures) creates a kind of internal rhyme that is suggested appeals to human aesthetic rhythmic sensibilities and invites the spectators imaginative interplay. This temporal pattern speaks of a particularly human rhythmic design, and provides an escape from the ‘standardised, context free, homogeneous’ clock time ‘that structures and times our daily lives’.

Film Studies
The politics of hope
Author: Sarah Daynes

On the basis of a body of reggae songs from the 1970s and late 1990s, this book offers a sociological analysis of memory, hope and redemption in reggae music. From Dennis Brown to Sizzla, the way in which reggae music constructs a musical, religious and socio-political memory in rupture with dominant models is illustrated by the lyrics themselves. How is the past remembered in the present? How does remembering the past allow for imagining the future? How does collective memory participate in the historical grounding of collective identity? What is the relationship between tradition and revolution, between the recollection of the past and the imagination of the future, between passivity and action? Ultimately, this case study of ‘memory at work’ opens up on a theoretical problem: the conceptualisation of time and its relationship with memory.

Open Access (free)
James Baldwin and Malcolm X
Mikko Tuhkanen

Taking its cue from recent scholarly work on the concept of time in African American literature, this essay argues that, while both James Baldwin and Malcolm X refuse gradualism and insist on “the now” as the moment of civil rights’ fulfillment, Baldwin also remains troubled by the narrowness assumed by a life, politics, or ethics limited to the present moment. In his engagement with Malcolm’s life and legacy—most notably in One Day, When I Was Lost, his screen adaptation of Malcolm’s autobiography—he works toward a temporal mode that would be both punctual and expansive. What he proposes as the operative time of chronoethics is an “untimely now”: he seeks to replace Malcolm’s unyielding punctuality with a different nowness, one that rejects both calls for “patience,” endemic to any politics that rests on the Enlightenment notion of “perfectibility,” and the breathless urgency that prevents the subject from seeing anything beyond the oppressive system he wants overthrown. Both thinkers find the promise of such untimeliness in their sojourns beyond the United States.

James Baldwin Review
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Rethinking the Familiar in Steven Soderbergh‘s The Limey
Lee Carruthers

This article complicates the notion that Steven Soderbergh‘s films are simply a refashioning of familiar materials, as evidenced by his ongoing appropriation of classical Hollywood and the European art cinema. Through a close analysis of The Limey (1999), this essay argues that Soderbergh‘s film interrogates the idea of familiarity, as such, beginning with the perceptual experience that it generates for viewers. With reference to Victor Shklovsky‘s notion of defamiliarization as well as Martin Heidegger‘s formulation of temporality in Being and Time, this discussion proposes that Soderbergh‘s reiteration of the filmic past can be seen as a meaningful event for film-critical practice that sheds new light upon issues of filmic temporality and film history.

Film Studies
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Peter Marks

, Gilliam set out to write a film with general appeal. Over a weekend he came up with the basic concepts and characters of Time Bandits , a treatment he pitched theatrically to Denis O’Brien. O’Brien was won over by the performance, but initially was unable to raise finance for the project from outside sources. Hand-Made decided to finance the film itself, a move that involved O’Brien and George Harrison

in Terry Gilliam
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Sarah Daynes

13 Time and memory And now, as I gradually found myself being pulled into the huge, slowly rotating crowd of dancers by the cotton tree, I recalled Mr Mann’s story of Columbus and Sir Francis Drake and the two Elizabeths who were actually one, the Africans who were both slave and warrior, and I realized that I had misunderstood him completely: I had thought he was making history up. It hadn’t occurred to me that he had been telling the truth. (Banks 1980: 126) In reggae music, one is able to observe memory at work. The words of the music transmit a memory of

in Time and memory in reggae music
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Alison Smith

narrative, no name, background or reason for existence. He connotes fairground fantasy. The conjuror possesses a power of transformation which presents itself as magic while relying on the spectator’s complicity and suspension of disbelief, and it is this attitude to the forthcoming film which his appearance as announcer of the credits seems to require. After the credit sequence, we are allowed for quite some time to forget the existence

in Agnès Varda
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Don Fairservice

, he comes obliquely towards the camera and leaves the frame close to camera right. For all its lack of sophistication, Buy Your Own Cherries contains evidence of a carefully judged sense of pace and timing that was beginning to enter some films made from this time. What is noticeable, however is that, whereas we understand the order of the scenes to be chronological, the film makes no distinction between events that follow

in Film editing: history, theory and practice
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The unconsoled in Rivette’s late works
Douglas Morrey and Alison Smith

story’ (Porton 2003 : 15). Rivette’s film dutifully ‘quotes’ much of the iconography of the fantastical genre, as classified by Jean-Louis Leutrat in his 1995 volume Vie des fantômes : there is an omnipresent, and very jittery, cat, named Nevermore with a nod to Edgar Allan Poe’s ‘The Raven’; clocks tick and chime throughout the film – Julien (Jerzy Radziwilowicz) repairs antique time pieces and his home is full of these

in Jacques Rivette