Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 7,010 items for :

  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Life changes in England since 1700
Author: Hugh Cunningham

This book provides the first history of how we have imagined and used time since 1700. It traces the history of the relationship between work and leisure, from the 'leisure preference' of male workers in the eighteenth century, through the increase in working hours in the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, to their progressive decline from 1830 to 1970. It examines how trade union action was critical in achieving the decline; how class structured the experience of leisure; how male identity was shaped by both work and leisure; how, in a society that placed high value on work, a 'leisured class' was nevertheless at the apex of political and social power – until it became thought of as 'the idle rich'. Coinciding with the decline in working hours, two further tranches of time were marked out as properly without work: childhood and retirement.

By the mid-twentieth century married men had achieved a work- leisure balance. In the 1960s and 1970s it was argued that leisure time would increase at a rapid rate. This false prediction coincided with the entry of married women into the labour market and a halt to the decline in working hours and in sectors of the economy a reversal of it. These two developments radically changed the experience of time and thinking about it. Time became equated with achieving a 'work-life balance' where 'life' was often unpaid childcare and domestic work.

R.M. Liuzza

Long before the invention of the mechanical clock, the monastic computes offered a model of time that was visible, durable, portable and objectifiable. The development of ‘temporal literacy’ among the Anglo-Saxons involved not only the measurement of time but also the ways in which the technologies used to measure and record time — from sundials and church bells to calendars and chronicles — worked to create and reorder cultural capital, and add new scope and range to the life of the imagination. Techniques of time measurement are deeply implicated in historical consciousness and the assertion of identity; this paper proposes some avenues of exploration for this topic among the Anglo-Saxons.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Jerome de Groot

This article considers the childrens writer Alison Uttley, and, particularly, her engagements with debates regarding science and philosophy. Uttley is a well-known childrens author, most famous for writing the Little Grey Rabbit series (1929–75), but very little critical attention has been paid to her. She is also an important alumna of the University of Manchester, the second woman to graduate in Physics (1907). In particular, the article looks at her novel A Traveller in Time through the lens of her thinking on time, ethics, history and science. The article draws on manuscripts in the collection of the John Rylands Library to argue that Uttley‘s version of history and time-travel was deeply indebted to her scientific education and her friendship with the Australian philosopher Samuel Alexander.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Ritual, routine and resistance in the British Empire
Author: Giordano Nanni

Much of the world today is governed by the clock. The project to incorporate the globe within a matrix of hours, minutes and seconds demands recognition as one of the most significant manifestations of Europe's universalising will. This book is an examination of the ways that western-European and specifically British concepts and rituals of time were imposed on other cultures as a fundamental component of colonisation during the nineteenth century. It explores the intimate relationship between the colonisation of time and space in two British settler-colonies and its instrumental role in the exportation of Christianity, capitalism and modernity. Just as the history of colonialism is often written without much reference to time, the history of time is frequently narrated without due reference to colonialism. Analysing colonial constructions of 'Aboriginal time', the book talks about pre-colonial zodiacs that have been said to demonstrate an encyclopedic oral knowledge of the night sky. Temporal control was part of everyday life during the process of colonization. Discipline and the control of human movements were channelled in a temporal as well as a spatial manner. In the colony of Victoria, missions and reserves sought to confine Aboriginal people within an unseen matrix of temporal control, imposing curfews and restrictions which interrupted the regular flow of pre-colonial patterns, rituals and calendars. Christianity had brought civilised conceptions of time to the Xhosa. Reports of Sabbath observance were treated by Britain's humanitarians as official evidence of missionary success in planting the seeds of Christianity, commerce and civilization.

Abstract only
Geraldine Lawless

3 •• How to tell time Geraldine Lawless Numerous nineteenth-century Spanish works of literature attest to their authors’ concern with how to depict and address temporality, with how to tell time. These concerns were about the relationship between past, present and future and hinged on experiences of continuity and rupture, similarity and difference, circularity and linearity. This chapter reviews some key temporal dilemmas faced by a range of nineteenth-century Spanish writers and explores how they employed a series of narrative and rhetorical techniques to

in Spain in the nineteenth century
Abstract only
Temporal frontiers and boundaries in colonial images of the Australian landscape
Rod Macneil

landscape embodied Australia’s prehistory – a nebulous era, beyond the bounds of Western time, out of which the colonial nation would ultimately emerge. More than simply prehistoric, uncolonised Australia seemed literally timeless. An understanding of the uncolonised landscape as temporal Other to colonial Australia was fundamental to its re-creation as a space available for

in Colonial frontiers
Matt Perry

4 Age, time and personal memory Though Marty’s Révolte was ostensibly an act of collective memory or even collective autobiography, he reduced the imagination of participants to a monological didacticism. A re-examination of the personal memories of mutineers allows Marty’s imposed uniformity to be unpicked. The mutiny, as Bakhtin might have put it, was dialogical: it entailed a multiplicity of subjectivities unevenly communing through collective action, everyday practices, song, symbolism and language.1 Overlapping with public commemorative practices, though

in Mutinous memories
Hugh Cunningham

2 Time and society in the eighteenth century P eople’s perception of time, of how it might be measured or divided up, and how it ought to be spent, depended very much on whether they lived in town or country, and where they stood in the social hierarchy. England in 1700 was a dominantly rural society. Just under a quarter of the population inhabited towns with a population over 2,500, nearly half of these urban dwellers living in London.1 If the minimum population of a town is raised to 5,000, then 83 per cent of the population were rural dwellers in 1700, a

in Time, work and leisure
Hugh Cunningham

5 Work time in decline, 1830 –1970 F rom the 1830s hours of work, which increased over the period from 1750 onwards, began a long decline that lasted through to the 1970s. The decline began with daily hours, first for children, and then more widely. The pattern of the week began to be reshaped with St Monday losing out to Saturday afternoon. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, and with much greater impetus in the twentieth, annual holidays with pay became a possibility and eventually a norm. It was in the twentieth century, too, that retirement became

in Time, work and leisure
The provident dispensaries movement in Manchester, 1871–85
Martin Hewitt

4 Fifty years ahead of its time? The provident dispensaries movement in Manchester, 1871–85 Martin Hewitt In April 1871 a letter signed ‘John Watts’ appeared in the Manchester Guardian. Watts’ name would have been well known to the paper’s readers, as he was a local social reformer of nearly 30 years’ standing, and a regular correspondent of the Guardian, which he had frequently used to launch or sustain reform campaigns. This time his object was a scheme for deploying the funds left in the hands of the Cotton Relief Committee at the end of the Cotton Famine of

in People, places and identities