The polity of the British episcopal churches, 1603–62
Benjamin M. Guyer
‘From the Apostles’ time’
‘From the Apostles’ time’: the polity of the
British episcopal churches, 1603–62
Benjamin M. Guyer
midst controversy, armed conflict and bloodshed, in the seventeenth
century episcopacy became a defining feature of the Church of England
and its Irish and Scottish counterparts. This chapter makes an extended
methodological argument about the importance of attending to the longue
durée by setting debates about episcopal polity in two broad contexts.1 First,
and more broadly, is the confessional framework provided by
Edmund Spenser’s The Ruines of Time as
a Protestant poetics of mourning and
I have completed a memorial more lasting than bronze and higher than the
royal grave of the pyramids.
Horace, Odes, Book 3, Ode 30
According to Horace, the poem is a memorial surpassing the commemorative
function of funeral monuments like the pyramids. This claim to the superior
mnemonic power of poetry derives from the immateriality and consequently,
the argument goes, the immortality of the poem as well as the person commemorated by it. The
Founded in 1421, the Collegiate Church of Manchester, which became a cathedral in 1847, is of outstanding historical and architectural importance. But until now it has not been the subject of a comprehensive study. Appearing on the 600th anniversary of the Cathedral’s inception by Henry V, this book explores the building’s past and its place at the heart of the world's first industrial city, touching on everything from architecture and music to misericords and stained glass. Written by a team of renowned experts and beautifully illustrated with more than 100 photographs, this history of the ‘Collegiate Church’ is at the same time a history of the English church in miniature.
Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites engages with and challenges some key narratives of one of the darkest periods in the history of Vienna; the rise and sustained presence of organised, politically directed antisemitism in the city between the late nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth. Sketching out first the longer-term background, it then focuses on central players in the antisemitic Christian Social movement, which flourished through an ideology of exclusion and prejudice. The work is built on considerable original research into both bourgeois social organisations and activists from the lower clergy, but it also exposes the role played in the development of antisemitism by the senior clergy in Vienna. In addition to a close examination of the antisemitic aspects of the Christian Socials, it analyses how other major social debates in this period impacted on their development as a group: national struggles, especially the desire for German unification; responses to the waves of poverty and social unrest that swept over Europe; and conservative and clerical reactions to modernity, such as liberalism and democracy – debates with a resonance far beyond Vienna. Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites tells its story across this long period, and for the first time in such detail, to give room to the gestation in ‘respectable’ society of antisemitism, an ideology that seemed to be dying in the 1860s, but which was revived and given new strength from the 1880s onwards, even surviving challenges from the more widely known Red Vienna of the 1920s and 1930s.
This book is the first published edition of a previously unknown manuscript treatise on the theological underpinnings of witchcraft belief in late sixteenth-century England. The treatise comprises a point-by-point response to the most famous early modern English work on witchcraft, Reginald Scot’s Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584). It was written by a personal friend of Scot’s, and internal evidence demonstrates that it offers critical feedback on a now-lost draft version of the Discoverie prior to the publication of that book, providing a rebuttal to Scot’s arguments in much greater detail than any other extant text, and showing precisely why his views were so controversial in their own time. The treatise is also a highly original and sophisticated theoretical defence of witchcraft belief in its own right, and the author’s position is based on detailed scriptural and theological arguments which are not found in any other English writings on the subject. The treatise’s arguments connect witchcraft belief to Reformed Protestant ideas about conscience, the devil, and the correct interpretation of scripture, and demonstrate the broader significance of witchcraft belief within this intellectual framework. It thereby provides evidence that the debate on witchcraft, as represented by the more dogmatic and formulaic printed works on the subject, shied away from the underlying issues which the author of the treatise (in a work never intended for publication) tackles explicitly.
’s work for scholarship on Scot are considered. The final section of the introduction briefly considers what conclusions can be drawn about the sources used in the composition of the treatise.
Witchcraft in late sixteenth-century England
Witchcraft persecution, as a historical phenomenon, has arguably received a disproportionate amount of scholarly attention in relation to its significance within its own time. The first secular law against witchcraft in early modern England was passed in the reign of Henry VIII in 1542. This law, the wording of which suggests a very
seemed unimaginable, by then
the Cathedral had emerged from the shadows of Manchester’s
industrial past and reinvented itself as the public face of the city.
Physically and materially, this was a journey from obscurity to new
urban space, but paradoxically it cut across the arc of church decline
in Manchester. The Cathedral managed to reconceive itself, and to assert
its continuing role, at a time when the difficulties facing all the
traditional Christian denominations were becoming more entrenched, and
effects of a banking crash then spread from the United States across western Europe into Vienna, bringing business failures and unemployment. 4 The liberal response was laissez-faire economics: to do nothing. By the time something was done, liberal claims of economic know-how were weakened. Prominent liberals and their supporters also became mired in scandals that involved public money, further damaging liberal reputations. These events were far from decisive in the decline of the liberals, but they undermined their standing. Luckily for them, in the 1870s organised
demarcation between the two;
goods and equipment were purchased exclusively for College or parish use
(including an organ apiece), and a style of worship was practised which
was specific to each. Over the years the relationship became
increasingly uneasy, and tensions surfaced from time to time. Each had
an effect on music, and the type and choice of pieces for services, be
they collegiate or parish, could and did provide a flashpoint for
tensions, both within and outside the church.
Until well into the nineteenth
Some members of the City Council were elected for the first time in 1861, while others had been members before the revolution of 1848 and had fallen from favour, at least initially, during neo-absolutism. One member elected in 1861, Ignaz Czapka, Baron von Winstetten, had been Mayor of Vienna from 1838 to 1848, and he had also held the post of director of police. According to the guide, Czapka had been ‘taken away from public service’ by the ‘turmoil’ of 1848, but he had been recalled as police director by Franz Josef in 1856, at the height of neo-absolutism. Czapka