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An oral history
Author: Lindsey Dodd

This book provides a unique perspective on the Allied bombing of France during the Second World War which killed around 57,000 French civilians. Using oral history as well as archival research, it provides an insight into children's wartime lives in which bombing often featured prominently, even though it has slipped out of French collective memory. The book compares three French towns with different experiences of bombing: Boulogne-Billancourt , Brest, and Lille. Divided into three parts dealing with expectations, experiences and explanations of bombing, the book considers the child's view of wartime violence, analysing resilience, understanding and trauma. The first part of the book deals with the time before bombing. It examines how the French prepared for war and preparations made specifically for bombing, showing how state-level and municipal-level preparations. The second part considers the time during bombing and its aftermath. It discusses the experience of being bombed, examining children's practical, sensory and emotional responses. The fascinating and frightening scenes in the immediate aftermath of bombing that made lasting impressions on children, including destruction, chaos and encounters with violent, public death. Changes in status as a result of bombing becoming a sinistre, refugee or evacuee had far-reaching consequences in some children's lives, affecting their education and economic situation. The last section looks at the way in which air raids were explained to the French population. It considers the propaganda that criticised and defended the Allies, and an understanding of the history of Vichy.

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Christoph Menke in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers
Editor: Christoph Menke

This book focuses on the paradoxical character of law and specifically concerns the structural violence of law as the political imposition of normative order onto a "lawless" condition. The paradox of law which grounds and motivates Christoph Menke's intervention is that law is both the opposite of violence and, at the same time, a form of violence. The book develops its engagement with the paradox of law in two stages. The first shows why, and in what precise sense, the law is irreducibly characterized by structural violence. The second explores the possibility of law becoming self-reflectively aware of its own violence and, hence, of the form of a self-critique of law in view of its own violence. The Book's philosophical claims are developed through analyses of works of drama: two classical tragedies in the first part and two modern dramas in the second part. It attempts to illuminate the paradoxical nature of law by way of a philosophical interpretation of literature. There are at least two normative orders within the European ethical horizon that should be called "legal orders" even though they forego the use of coercion and are thus potentially nonviolent. These are international law and Jewish law. Understanding the relationship between law and violence is one of the most urgent challenges a postmodern critical legal theory faces today. Self-reflection, the philosophical concept that plays a key role in the essay, stands opposed to all forms of spontaneity.

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Alexander García Düttmann

individual who lifts themselves to a level of sophistication and, once they have reached this level, once they have raised their consciousness to self-​consciousness, once they have planted within themselves what Adorno calls the “ferment of intellectual or spiritual experience,”1 will keep wondering what kind of a person they were beforehand and how such a person could have left obtuseness behind for much of the time if not once and for all. Of course a contrast needs to be introduced between self-​reflection as an individual and even collective accomplishment, a

in Law and violence
Lindsey Dodd

, skill and the perceived ‘character’ of the bombers. Michel Thomas (Boulogne-Billancourt) emphasised that British v 197 v Explaining bombing bombers ‘aimed’; Bernard Bauwens (Boulogne-Billancourt) said they took their time and came in low; Andréa Cousteaux (Brest) remembered they ‘would circle before dropping their bombs’; and Jean Pochart (Brest) said ‘they did everything they could to hit the target’. While the two air forces’ bombing techniques were largely down to different technologies, the Americans using the Norden bombsight that supposedly gave excellent

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

’t want him to. She said to Jacques, ‘You can’t go to the tea party. I don’t want you going out like that, all alone’. And she rode off on her bike. And then Jacques, he sneaked out. And I ask myself even today, and I ask myself often, it’s a question I ask myself all the time: did he leave while my mother was still at home, and we hid it from her? It’s a question I ask myself all the time, I don’t know if my sister asks herself, because I feel really very guilty, and that’s not right, to feel guilty because Jacques went out when he shouldn’t have done. But I wish I

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Reflections on Menke’s ‘Law and violence’
Alessandro Ferrara

glossed over by mainstream and even by deliberative liberalism, and at the same time towards the end introduces a remedy, if not a solution, to the said paradox in the form of a reflexive “law against its will” that somehow reinstates, in a peculiar form, the liberal idea of minimizing coercion. I will group my comments under three main headings. First, some of the presuppositions underlying the thesis of the paradoxical relation of law to violence will be addressed. Second, Menke’s appropriation of Benjamin’s critique of violence will be discussed, with special

in Law and violence
Lindsey Dodd

v 5 v An evolving response Thérèse Leclercq: When went to bed, we’d always get some warm clothes ready in case we had to go down to the cellar. At the time there was no central heating, nothing at all. So I remember my parents prepared all sorts of little blankets to put round our shoulders, but I could never fall asleep down there. If the siren went off, my parents said to us ‘you have to do this’ or ‘you have to do that’. I learnt what to do. My little sister was born in 1942, so my mother always carried her down there, I had my older brother, and everyone

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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A conclusion
Lindsey Dodd

Evaluating bombing: a conclusion Édith Denhez: And then, well, they buried my brother. My father came back too. They buried my brother. They’d been looking for his body for several days. After that, they buried him. Time passed, and the bombs continued, and we were still in the village. Then my mother said: ‘Well, we should really go and get some of our clothes from home, shouldn’t we.’ So my father, he told me afterwards, he went all the way down the rue de Solesmes [back in Cambrai], and when he arrived at the bottom, he said, “Well I never! What on Earth? I

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Towards a re-thinking of legal justice in transitional justice contexts
María del Rosario Acosta López

violence at the core of the law, while narrowing down, correspondingly, the capacity of the law to deal with its own structural forms of violence. Each one of these perspectives is also, from Menke’s standpoint, a misunderstanding of the nature and the object of law’s violence. Each one of them also, at the same time, demands too little of the law, thereby undermining its own emancipatory potential. The first criticism is related to a conception of legal justice as retribution. Transitional justice processes bring to light more than ever the incapacity of the law to

in Law and violence
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

the best army in the world, we’re the strongest and our generals are very skilful.’ But I do think that the people who said that – and I remember our father said that – they didn’t really seem to believe it. They themselves didn’t believe it. I  felt that we’d won in 1914, but this time no. We’d seen German propaganda, we used to go to the cinema to see the news, and we saw Nuremburg, the Germans, their discipline, their ceremonies, and it made us afraid, eh! I’m not making this up, not at all. Because as a child I was very, very attentive. And when in 1940 on 10

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45