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Activist photography, self-reflection and antinomies
Antigoni Memou

unemployment. Their critique moved from a critique of the university to a critique of society.16 Their demands for radical reconstruction and democratisation touched upon every sphere of life. The students critiqued capitalism, the culture of consumption and the mass media, and questioned the oppression of women, discrimination against minorities and segregation of youth. Although their demands covered a broad range, it is this chapter’s main argument that they all derived from a common basis, that is ‘destructive critique’.17 By ‘destructive critique’ is meant a critique

in Photography and social movements
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Activism and design in Italy

Precarious objects is a book about activism and design. The context is the changes in work and employment from permanent to precarious arrangements in the twenty-first century in Italy. The book presents design interventions that address precarity as a defuturing force affecting political, social and material conditions. Precarious objects shows how design objects, called here ‘orientation devices’, recode political communication and reorient how things are imagined, produced and circulated. It also shows how design as a practice can reconfigure material conditions and prefigure ways to repair some of the effects of precarity on everyday life. Three microhistories illustrate activist repertoires that bring into play design, and design practices that are grounded in activism. While the vitality, experimental nature and traffic between theory and praxis of social movements in Italy have consistently attracted the interest of activists, students and researchers in diverse fields, there exists little in the area of design research. This is a study of design activism at the intersection of design theory and cultural research for researchers and students interested in design studies, cultural studies, social movements and Italian studies.

Visualising a changing city

Delving into a hitherto unexplored aspect of Irish art history, Painting Dublin, 1886–1949 examines the depiction of Dublin by artists from the late-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Artists’ representations of the city have long been markers of civic pride and identity, yet in Ireland, such artworks have been overlooked in favour of the rural and pastoral, falling outside of the dominant disciplinary narratives of nationalism or modernism. Framed by the shift from city of empire to capital of an independent republic, this book chiefly examines artworks by of Walter Frederick Osborne (1857–1903), Rose Mary Barton (1856–1929), Jack Butler Yeats (1871–1957), Harry Aaron Kernoff (1900–74), Estella Frances Solomons (1882–1968), and Flora Hippisley Mitchell (1890–1973), encompassing a variety of urban views and artistic themes. While Dublin is renowned for its representation in literature, this book will demonstrate how the city was also the subject of a range of visual depictions, including those in painting and print. Focusing on the images created by these artists as they navigated the city’s streets, this book offers a vivid visualisation of Dublin and its inhabitants, challenging a reengagement with Ireland’s art history through the prism of the city and urban life.

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

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Kuba Szreder

longer be clearly assigned according to dual parameters like work and leisure, production and reproduction, employment and unemployment, but is striated and smoothed beyond these designations’ (Raunig 2013 : 102). This temporality, ‘striated’ and ‘smoothed’ by project-driven interruptions, enables new forms of exploitation which expand beyond the work-place and consequently beyond working-hours, as the punch-clocks of creative workers ‘know no on and off but only countless versions of on’ (Raunig 2013 : 142). As a consequence of this apparently unchained temporality

in The ABC of the projectariat
Kent Fedorowich

problems of demobilisation, veterans’ discontent, industrial regeneration and chronic unemployment. Moreover, the failure of the British government to launch a successful domestic colonisation scheme also had a direct bearing on the implementation of this empire migration project. The outbreak of war effectively ended imperial migration for the next five years. ‘Of course everything here is all war and

in Unfit for heroes
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Foredoomed to failure?
Kent Fedorowich

initial estimates of early 1919. While the shortage of shipping during the first eighteen months hampered efforts, the onset of the short, sharp post-war depression of 1920–22 paradoxically both made and broke the scheme. Had unemployment not been such a serious problem the British government would neither have supported the idea of free passage nor its subsequent extension. But at the same time the dominions were

in Unfit for heroes
Rebecca Binns

being destabilised. Feminism also affected the expectations of women, with increasing numbers joining the workplace, while family breakup became more prevalent. In keeping with other post-war youth subcultures, punk opened up a space where young people contested outdated social constructs and expectations, as well as playing out the problems they faced. 4 The rise in unemployment, for example, became a prominent feature of early punk lyrics, although an active rejection of traditional work was as prevalent as any

in Gee Vaucher
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Abigail Susik

’s decimation of the population, the massive loss of lives in the influenza pandemic of 1918–19, and the continuation of France’s historically low birth rate during this era. 4 Unlike the coronavirus pandemic in the new millennium, in which mass shutdowns and redundancies resulted in unemployment for millions of workers, in the influenza pandemic immediately following World War I there was no rhetorical distinction between ‘essential’ and ‘non-essential’ workers, though certainly labour itself was divided in many other

in Surrealist sabotage and the war on work
Lea Bou Khater

provided for by the state in regards to health insurance, family allowances and end-of-service lump-sum payments. Aside from this assistance, unemployment benefit and insurance against disability and accidents at work are currently non-existent. Most informal workers, such as seasonal labourers, construction and agricultural workers, migrant and domestic workers, as well as the self-employed, unemployed and retirees, remain unprotected. Melani Cammett notes that ‘sectarianism and the provision of social services entail the

in The labour movement in Lebanon