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Open Access (free)
Digital Work and Fragile Livelihoods of Women Refugees in the Middle East and North Africa
Dina Mansour-Ille
Demi Starks

of digital work within refugee communities in general and women’s rights groups in particular ( Hunt et al. , 2017 ). The case of Jordan is particularly revealing – a country that continues to have one of the highest youth and female unemployment rates in the world ( IFC, 2021 ). Despite the slow transition to digital work, refugees are not commonly perceived to be part of this transition. As demonstrated below, considerable challenges – including

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

uncertainty of active unemployment becomes the global work norm, the chronically poor and the disaster-affected have blurred. In an unmediated relationship with their environments, they are both subject to permanent emergency. They constantly change place and, at a time when economy and disaster have blurred, from a post-humanitarian perspective, they become indistinguishable. Since resilience is now equally required of the poor and exposed – as well as the ‘first responders’ – the traditional distinction between developmental and humanitarian relief

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Digital Skills Training and the Systematic Exclusion of Refugees in Lebanon
Rabih Shibli
Sarah Kouzi

programme to shift its attention to those few opportunities that the local market could provide. However, under the impact of the recent economic and financial crisis, these opportunities have increasingly faded too. In a span of less than three years, Lebanon went from a country known for its growing middle class to one with an inflation rate of over 240 per cent 8 and a dramatic unemployment rate 50.1 per cent in 2022 (16.2 per cent in 2018–19). 9 As part of ‘Future of Food

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva
Ann-Christin Zuntz
Ruba al Akash
Ayat Nashwan
, and
Areej Al-Majali

households transcend the local level, taking into account the contribution (or lack of contribution) of absent others. Existing NGO reports often focus on Syrian women’s relationships with spouses, who are said to experience unemployment and their wives’ new occupations as emasculating and a loss of ‘traditional’ pre-war lifestyles ( Lokot, 2018 ). By contrast, we zoom in on relationships between younger and older women. Life in exile and humanitarian programming

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Future of Work among the Forcibly Displaced
Evan Easton-Calabria
Andreas Hackl

labour productivity ( ITU, 2019 ). In the Middle East and North Africa, some predict that digitalisation could raise GDP per capita on average by more than 40 per cent, while long-term unemployment rates could drop and female labour force participation could double to more than 40 per cent in some countries ( Cusolito et al. , 2022 ). While these figures are both promising and impressive, limited research explores how individuals as well as specific

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

recruited. Already in March 2018 when her colleague was sick, UNRWA did not find a ‘daily-paid’ substitute teacher – instead, her class of thirty-five students had to ‘absorb’ the other teacher’s class, leaving her to teach seventy children in her small classroom. Such changes also mean that young Palestinians who had hoped to work for UNRWA – including prospective teachers, doctors, clerical and facilities staff – will face restricted employment possibilities, leading to increased levels of unemployment, underemployment and related long

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Richard Parrish

citizens through the integrationist qualities of sport. These exchanges should contribute to a better knowledge and acceptance of the social and cultural differences between member states. • encouragement of participation in sport, as a means of promoting the health of European citizens. • support of sporting activities for social ends, aiming to combat unemployment and discrimination, racism and violence, by promoting equal opportunities between men and women. • help for sporting initiatives in the realm of education, as much at the level of management training and

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Leslie C. Green

, guerrillas, saboteurs or infiltrators directed at places of compulsory labour. At the same time, the Occupying Power may not seek to stimulate unemployment to induce the population to work for it. Even when they are engaged in compulsory labour, the Occupying Power must permit access to the services of the Protecting Power. On no account may the Occupying Power requisition labour in sufficient numbers to constitute

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only
Laura Cahillane

2 The Drafts Introduction February and early March 1922 were a busy time for the Provisional Government. On the two occasions the Dáil sat in March, the government had to deal with numerous questions on issues such as unemployment, the ownership of evacuated land, the setting up of a police force, the future of the Dáil courts and still many debates descended into arguments on the Treaty.1 Furthermore, on 22 February, a decision had been made at the Sinn Féin Árd Fheis that the coming election2 would not be held within the next three months but, when it was to

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
Matthew Happold

unemployment and in areas in economic difficulties. Indeed, Brett and Specht see child soldiering as a form of child labour, and argue that eliminating child soldiering without providing adequate alternatives will simply lead to a rise in other forms of child labour. Family : As with school, family is at the centre in a child’s life. It is well documented that the loss or absence of

in Child soldiers in international law