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Sofia Wijkmark

short, the economic policy that was the foundation for the idea of the folkhem was inspired by Keynesian economics and aimed to reduce unemployment rates and realise a planned economy in order to secure a good standard of living for every citizen, corresponding to the communal income of the labour force. The expansion of the public sector also resulted in a new labour market that would eventually be dominated by women. Due to the country's minimal involvement in the Second World War, the Swedish economy was relatively intact after the war and the

in Nordic Gothic
Sara B. Elfgren and Mats Strandberg’s teenage witch trilogy
Maria Holmgren Troy

Located in the middle of Sweden, in an area called Bergslagen (the Swedish ‘rust belt’), Engelsfors is a small town characterised by post-industrial gloom and decline: ‘Out in the middle of nowhere, surrounded by deep forests where people often lose their way and disappear. Thirteen thousand inhabitants and high unemployment. The steel works closed down twenty-five years ago.’  19 The caves and tunnels explored by the Chosen Ones in Nyckeln are remnants from centuries of mining and iron works, as are names such as

in Nordic Gothic
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Neoliberal gothic
Linnie Blake
Agnieszka Soltysik Monnet

being held fully responsible for any failure to prosper. As politicians pledged their allegiance not to the welfare of the electorate but to the financial freedoms of the market, a widening gulf of inequality became all too apparent. In developed nations, this manifested itself in the form of bankruptcies, unemployment lines, homelessness and public health crises. 12 Globally

in Neoliberal Gothic
The Books of Blood and the horror of 1980s Britain
Darryl Jones

to study the stories. It does, however, mean that we should not expect ready parallels or easy answers. By the 1980s, when the Books of Blood were published, Liverpool was at the sharp end of British postwar, post-industrial decline, a city blighted by deprivation and unemployment. In the fevered summer of 1981, riots broke out all over Britain

in Clive Barker
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Suicide and the Gothic in modern Japanese literature and culture
Katarzyna Ancuta

These are the people the novel calls ‘gray men’ – both alien and invisible to the system that continues to disregard individuals for the benefit of the richest elites. Studies indicate that apart from illness, most suicides in Japan are caused by financial or life-related problems (mostly debt and poverty), family issues (including conflict and divorce) and work-related problems (e.g. bullying or unemployment). 36 Many of these are intricately related and aggravated by economic recession and growing income disparity

in Suicide and the Gothic
Couperus and colonial Gothic
Rosemarie Buikema

argues that the position of Indo children was marginal and without perspective. 12 They were at the fringe of Dutch Indies society. Because of their poor education and fluency in Dutch, Indo children barely qualified for a job with a Dutch company. Around 1900 their chances even diminished because of the sugar crisis, which caused a dramatic growth in unemployment rates among the Indo population

in Gothic kinship
Surreal Englishness and postimperial Gothic in The Bojeffries Saga
Tony Venezia

topically is the representation of police racism and brutality, which would have been immediately recognisable to the contemporary reader. The 1980s saw a series of inner-city riots generally ascribed to high unemployment and deprived environments but exacerbated by insensitive methods of community policing in neighbourhoods with high populations of ethnic minorities, especially

in Alan Moore and the Gothic Tradition
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The asylum
Amy Milne-Smith

. 36 Bartlett, The Poor Law of Lunacy , p. 32. 37 As Marjorie Levine-Clark notes, it was specifically designed to penalize men who were no longer economically self-sufficient. Paupers had to give up their right to vote when they accepted relief. M. Levine-Clark, Unemployment, Welfare, and Masculine Citizenship: ‘So Much Honest Poverty’ in Britain, 1870–1930 (New York, 2015), pp. 4

in Out of his mind
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Costume, performance and power in 1953
Lisa Mullen

continuing rationing, recession and unemployment resulted in mass lay-offs of workers in Lancashire; in the summer of 1952, 33 per cent of spinning operatives and 22 per cent of weaving operatives were either unemployed or on short time. 95 The ‘textiles crisis’, as it became known, prompted Sir Raymond Streat, chairman of the Cotton Board, to call an international conference at Buxton in September which concluded that the low demand was caused by a combination of ‘not just increasing Japanese competition, but also Korean War stockpiling, import controls in Australia and

in Mid-century gothic
Fred Botting
Justin D. Edwards

anxieties about immigration and unemployment (Comaroff, 2002 : 779). Violence between citizens of neighbouring postcolonial nations, then, is not merely the byproduct of local tension. It also stems from the ‘structural adjustments’ that have imposed global market forces on developing nations and enforced a dependency on economic fluctuations (prices, investments) and the resulting shifts in employment and migration

in Globalgothic