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The past, present and future of social democracy and the welfare state

This book outlines the reasons for the development of and need for social democracy and the welfare state. It begins with the reaffirmation that post-2008 Anglo-America has seen the greatest concentration of wealth since the Great Depression, some nine decades earlier. The book reviews the thought of classical liberals like Adam Smith, democratic theorists like Alexis De Tocqueville and Matthew Arnold, and early social democrats like John Stuart Mill and Beatrice Webb. It further details the reasons for the derailing of the welfare state. Milton Friedman's ideas about the free market were institutionalized by Ronald Reagan in the US and Margaret Thatcher in the UK, both of whom dismantled the welfare state, or as much of it as possible. The book talks about the collapse of the Grand Narrative of the Left in the 1980s and 1990s. How this led to the 'great forgetting' in Anglo-America, and to a lesser extent in continental European social democracies and welfare states as well, is discussed. The book argues that 'forgetting' the past success of social democracy has been costly. It highlights that globalization does not explain unemployment in Anglo-America; nor is it the cause of inequality in either the US or the UK. A comparison of Anglo-America's social model with the European social model of the welfare and social democratic states of continental Europe, follows. Even with the high unemployment rates of the European Union, most of Europe is still as economically efficient as the US and the UK.

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Marching forward
Daisy Payling

College on local activists and politicians. This chapter explores Sheffield's working-class institutions and details the role of certain political families in maintaining the close relationship between industry and politics. It examines the extent to which these institutions embraced new left ideas to meet the challenge of mass and youth unemployment, and describes the fate of Militant and other left-wing factions in Sheffield. The chapter ends by delving further into the 1984–85 miners’ strike to demonstrate how class politics and the labour movement remained important

in Socialist Republic
The expansion of state capitalism
Kayhan Valadbaygi

was behind many developing countries. For instance, it was 25 per cent below that of neighbouring Turkey (Esfahani and Pesaran, 2009 : 192). The most staggering fact about the economic development of this period is an absolute surge in unemployment. Between 1977/78 and 1990/91, the population grew by around 62 per cent, adding 4.3 million workers to the economically active labour force. The official

in Capitalism in contemporary Iran
From workers’ resistance in the 1990s to the post-2017 uprisings
Kayhan Valadbaygi

the Iranian reserve army of labour in recent decades – the unemployed population climbed from 1.5 million in 1996 to 3.3 million in 2016 according to the Statistical Center of Iran – many essential protections envisaged in the law have not been upheld, such as minimum wage, social security, normal working hours and a safe working environment. In other words, the unemployment crisis has lowered upward

in Capitalism in contemporary Iran
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The Arab Spring and Russia
Derek Averre

, inspired by oppressive regimes, high levels of unemployment and corruption and other social ills ( Bogdanov 2011 , 12). Moscow’s initial response to the Arab Spring thus appeared to have much in common with that of its Western partners. However, the violent death of Gaddafi in October 2011 confirmed Russia’s fears – shared by other non-Western powers – that the NATO-led intervention had exceeded the original

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa
The challenge of the Arab Spring
Derek Averre

social justice, biased law enforcement, utterly unfair wealth accumulation, unemployment, and systemic corruption. Faced with the discrepancy between proclaimed, constitutionally guaranteed principles and the actual situation on the ground, people turn to radicals who offer clear and simple solutions. ( Naumkin et al 2013 , 102

in Russian strategy in the Middle East and North Africa
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The era of electing the leader
Philip Norton

sent her suggestions as to what to cover. Topics for discussion with the executive were notified in advance. In August 1980, for example, the issues were short- and medium-term economic prospects, House of Lords reform and Northern Ireland; 44 in December 1982, unemployment, tax thresholds and defence. 45 Her PPSs, especially her first, Ian Gow, kept her informed of what transpired at meetings of the

in The 1922 Committee
Philip Norton

constitutional matters, chaired by Whitelaw, be established. 69 Advance notice has usually been given of points to be raised. In November 1980, du Cann asked that Thatcher address the short- and medium-term economic prospects with particular reference to unemployment, House of Lords reform and Northern Ireland. She was also advised that ‘Bill van Straubenzee will raise the question of

in The 1922 Committee
Kayhan Valadbaygi

.1 Unemployment (%) 14.2 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.1 13.6 16.0 12.2 10.3 11

in Capitalism in contemporary Iran
The Iranian nuclear programme, international sanctions and regional policy
Kayhan Valadbaygi

catastrophic crisis. With an over 50 per cent reduction in Iran’s oil exports to less than a million barrels a day in 2012, which cost the country more than $5 billion in lost revenue every month (Arms Control Association, 2013 : 17), inflation and unemployment had exponentially surged. Coupled with the plunge of the value of the national currency against the dollar by more than half

in Capitalism in contemporary Iran